1 Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan
1 MSc. Environmental Management (NUS), S.T. (ITB)
Urban Planner & Researcher,
Green Impact Indonesia
Integrated Urban, Drainage and Environmental Planning and Design
Bandung or “Paris Van Java” faces tremendous development pressures. The city is congested because of urban sprawling, development of new shopping centres and development of toll road CIPULARANG (CIkampek – PUrwakarta – PadaLARANG) in 2005. We actually wrote this for MSc. Environmental Management, National University of Singapore, for the Environmental Planning Assignment in 2005. But we feel that this paper is important to be shared to its residents and foreigners for better understanding and sympathy for Bandung condition.
We also included the Review of Bandung 2013 Spatial Planning Strategies. We understand that currently the new Spatial Plan (Master Plan) of Bandung is still in development process. We hope that this review will give other perspectives to the Municipality and Stakeholders of Bandung to produce more sustainable Spatial Plan or Master Plan.
Keywords: Sustainable Urban Development, Master Plan 2013 Bandung, Revitalisation of Bandung, Evaluation for Sustainable Bandung City, Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah Bandung 2013, Kebijakan Strategis Kota Bandung 2004-2008
The Physical Context
Bandung is located in West Java, Indonesia. It is the capital City of West Java Province. Its geographical location is 1070 32’ 38.91” E and 60 55’ 19.94” S, while its altitude is between 675 m and 1’050 m above the sea level. Bandung topography condition can be categorised into two parts. The Northern part is a mountainous terrain with beautiful panoramas, while the Southern part of the City is relatively low with agriculture areas and swamps. Bandung atmospheric condition can be described as wet and humid. The average temperature is 23.6°C, while the monthly rainfall reaches 156.4 mm (average of 15 rainy days in every month). Another distinguish feature of Bandung is its surrounding mountains. Some experts explained that Bandung was a great basin in the prehistoric age. This apparently is a constraint in the development context because of limited area for expansion and higher development costs for developing steep slopes. And these could be observed in the following photos. [i]
Figure 1. Beautiful Scenery of North of Bandung
With total area of 167.29 km2, Bandung City is divided into Six Development Districts which are:
- Bojonegara District
- Cibeunying District
- Tegallega District
- Karees District
- Ujungberung District
- Gedebage District. [ii]
The division is further presented in following figure.
Figure 2. Bandung map, with six Development Districts.[iii]
Social, Political and Institutional Context
Bandung was built in 1488 by Pajajaran Kingdom. But it was not fully developed till 1799, when the City was surrendered from VOC to Dutch Government. In 25th May 1811, the City was declared as Bandung Regency capital. Further, the Gemeente Bandoeng was formed in the 21st February 1901. Later the Municipality form was changed to Burgemeester Van Bandoeng in 1st July 1917 and Staadgementee Bandoeng in 1st October 1928. [iv]
Figure 3. Bandung in 1930’s
Because of the Dutch defeat by the Japanese in Indonesia in World War II, Bandung Municipality was surrendered to the Japanese and named Bandung Si, in 9th March 1942. This Municipality apparently only sustained for 3 years. The independence of Indonesia brought the first National Municipality of Bandung City in 2nd September 1945. Unfortunately during the second Dutch military invasion to Indonesia, the City was occupied by Dutch and became the Capital of Pasundan Country run by Dutch annexes in April 1946. [v]
During the stabilization time of Republic of Indonesian the Municipality form was changed to Staadsgemeente Bandoeng in 1st July 1948, Haminte Bandung in 17th January 1949, and finally became Bandung Big City in 15th August 1950. Since that the Municipality was handled by the national government under the Bandung Municipality. The area of Bandung City was extended several times, because of the population and political needs. In 1906 the City was declared as autonomous region with 1’922 Ha areas. This is the first area extension of the City. The second area extensions occurred in in 12th October 1917 to 1’871 Ha. [vi]
In 1933, the planning process of Bandung City was initiated by Prof, Ir. Thomas Karsten. His plan was prepared for the next 25 years. Because of the plan, Bandung area was extended from 2’871 Ha to 12’758 Ha in order to house 750’000 people in 1955. This plan was later known with “Karsten Plan” and can be seen in the following figure.[vii]
Figure 4. Karsten Plan for Bandung, 1933.[viii]
The Dutch colonialism was implemented clearly in this plan. The strategy was done by dividing the City for European, Far-East Asian and Native Indonesian residents. Apparently the government was trying to promote segregation and conflicts between these people. Later this policy appears to create slums area and disintegration in the City systems. Because of Dutch defeat, the Karsten Plan was only partially implemented in the City, mostly in the Northern Bandung. Bandung City area was later expanded by the Japanese authority in 1942-1945 reaching to 5’413 Ha. Under the Pasundan Country in 1949 the City was expanded further to 8’098 Ha. Finally in 1987 under The Republic of Indonesia Government Statue number 16, 1987 the administrative area of Bandung City was extended to 16’729.65 Ha. [ix]
The Municipality of Bandung City now is organized according sub-districts division and lower level of people associations. The Bandung City is divided by:
- 6 Development Districts (Wilayah Pengembangan)
- 26 Sub-Districts (Kecamatan), led by a Sub-District Head (Camat)
- 139 Villages (Kelurahan), led by a Village Chief (Lurah)
- 1’500 Community Associations (Rukun Warga), led by a Leader of Community Association (Ketua RW)
- 9’277 Neighbourhood Associations (Rukun Tetangga), led by a Leader of Neighbourhood Association (Ketua RT). [x]
The problems of lack of funding, lack of human resources, lack of supporting tools are happening in the Bandung Municipality. According to the research which conducted in 2001, numbers of officers with good related backgrounds in the government agencies are very small. For example in the City Planning Agency (Dinas Tata Kota) number of officers with architect or urban designer background is only 10% compared to officers with legal backgrounds. Apparently this has caused disintegrations between the Master Plan, the development control and infrastructure provisions.[xi]
According to 2003 National Economic Census the population of Bandung has reached 2’228’268 people (with 1’113’267 women and 1’115’001 men). The average population density of Bandung is 13’367 people/ km2, with the highest population density in Bojongloa Kaler Sub-district 38’149 people/ km2.[xii] The population distribution of Bandung City by area is presented in following tables and figures. Apparently some over populated areas in the City possess social and environmental problems.
Table 1. Districts’ names, areas, and population numbers and densities
in Bandung City 2003.[xiii]
Figure 5. Population Densities in Bandung, 2000.[xiv]
Bandung people education level can be considered normal. Only 9.33% do not receive education, 82.09% has finished primary and secondary education. 8.30% population hold degrees from 1 Year-Diploma to Bachelor Degree, while 0.29% of the people hold Master and Doctoral Degrees.[xv] This is the highest education rate in the province, but still there are residents’ illiteracy problems. The unemployment problem in Bandung also has been highlighted by some experts. For example it is reported 27’500 people are unemployed because of companies closing down and lack of job creations. This is a tendency of unsustainable social and economic development in the city. [xvi]
In 2003 Economic Census the poor people number has reached 34.34% of total population. The poverty problems are very clear and have created a lot of social problems such as criminalities, slum areas, and illegal street-hawker as described in the following photos. While the family economic status distributions and criminalities figures in Bandung 2003 are described in the following table.
Figure 6. Aerial View of Over-populated Area and Substandard Housing. [xvii]
Figure 7. Illegal Street-hawkers were Obstructing Pedestrians.[xviii]
Table 2. Poor family distributions in Bandung City 2003.[xix]
Table 3. Criminalities figures in Bandung City, 2003.[xx]
The number of health facilities in Bandung actually is enough to cater the need of Bandung populations, although ideally it should be increased. The real problem is actually the need of affordable healthcares. Because of increase of healthcare service, more and more people actually need the affordable ones.
The main economic activities of the City are trading and manufacturing industry especially textile and garment. The textile industry started emerging in the City in 1970, while the other economic activities are services industry especially in education and tourism started to emerge 1980. The agriculture activities in Bandung had been reduced since 1970, because a lot of land had been converted from agricultural use to industrial estate and housing. This situation tends to create unsustainable food production, although food supplies are still available in adjacent agricultural area (especially Lembang, North of Bandung). [xxi]
The total number of industries in Bandung, between 1998 and 2003, seems not to increase much. The data presented in Table …shows that between 1998 and 2000, number of industries was increasing. It reached the peak in 2000 with 581 industries, but after that it decreased. I believed this phenomenon is happening because of increase of oil cost, and greater competition with China and India emerging industries. All types of industries and their distribution in Bandung are presented in the following tables. And they showed that there is no differentiation of industrial pollution.
Table 4. Total number of large and medium industry establishments and absorbed manpower by them in Bandung, 1998 – 2003. [xxii]
Table 5a.New Industrial Classification (Klasifikasi Lapangan Usaha Industri / KLUI).[xxiii]
Table 5b. Industry classifications and distribution in Bandung City 2003.[xxiv]
Table 5c. Industry classifications and distribution in Bandung City 2003.[xxv]
Table 5d. Industry classifications and distribution in Bandung City 2003.[xxvi]
Table 5e. Industry classifications and distribution in Bandung City 2003.[xxvii]
We can found approximately 300 textile industries in Bandung. The industries were concentrated in 3 areas: Eastern area along Cileunyi – Cicalengka Road; Central area along Mohamad Toha Road, Dayeuhkolot Area and Majalaya; and Western area around Nanjung and Padalarang. Another industrial centre can be found in Leuwigajah, Cimahi. Some other textile industries can be found spreading in the southern part of Bandung.[xxviii] The recent development of textile industries showed that almost 70% of industries were closed down in 2005 because of reasons mentioned above. This seems to bring negative impact to economic development in Bandung.[xxix]
Another important industry in Bandung is the PT Dirgantara Indonesia. It is a high-tech aircraft company with total employees of 15’801 people, and 2’900 engineers.[xxx] After 18 years the company decided to reduce 30’000 of the employees because of decreasing of aircraft demand and mismanagement. This apparently affected the economic situation and created more unemployment.
Other economic sector that makes a lot of contribution is the education. Some nationally recognised university such as Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Padjajaran University (UNPAD) and Parahyangan Catholic University (UNPAR) apparently had encouraged numbers of private universities emerged in Bandung. All of education institutions later created demands for supporting economic activities such as: food centres, accommodation, stationery stores, book stores and markets, internet shops, etc. Actually these activities support most of City residents. It was recorded there are 5 government and 66 private tertiary education institutions presence in Bandung, 2005.
The factory outlets, delicious foods and beautiful sceneries are three attracting factors for tourists coming to Bandung. This has generated great profits to these industries. On the other hand, negative impacts caused are severe weekend traffic jams. Because of new toll road built from Jakarta to Bandung, every weekend now more that 12’000 vehicles jam Bandung roads and create traffic congestions. The traffic jams sometimes can progress from 12 AM to 20 PM.
Figure 8. The Traffic Congestions in Bandung [xxxi]
The needs of 2’228’268 population in Bandung for good public sanitation are not easy to handle, because there are public services network disintegrations in existing urban structure. For example until now there are slums areas without access to clean water, solid waste collection and sewage collection. The phenomenon actually exists in most developing countries. The main reason is the illegal status of land ownerships, lack of funding and inefficiency in the Municipality and Agencies.
In the case of solid waste collections only 70% of solid waste produced in Bandung can be transported to the final disposal dumping site.[xxxii] The rests will pollute the river, the gardens, empty lands and public spaces. It is reported that 41.7% of Citarum River, that crosses some areas of Bandung, has been polluted.[xxxiii] Apparently this water pollution is also caused by direct sewage discharge from households. In 1997, the household percentage served by sewerage system was only 32.41 %. This is the example of unsustainable waste management practice in developing cities.
The lack of adequate final solid waste treatment is the main problem for waste management. The solid waste collapse in Leuwigajah (the largest open dumping site) in the early 2001 that killed around 100 people actually caused the closing of the dumpsite. This occurred because the mismanagement of Public Sanitation Company (PD Kebersihan). The company did not follow the correct landfill method; they just did an open dumping method. Other problems derived from this operation are heavy metal land contaminations, water contaminations, odour pollutions and infectious disease spreads. All of these phenomena show the need of a paradigm shift in Bandung solid waste management.
Figure 9. The Solid Waste that could not be transported and The Garbage Landslide in Leuwigajah Open Dumping Site, Bandung City.[xxxiv]
Another Bandung environment related problem is annual flooding. Because of the rapid developments in Bandung, especially in the Northern area which are groundwater recharge areas, the flooding problems become annual event in the Southern parts of Bandung. The other cause of this is littering problem in the river. The solid waste accumulation in river apparently also caused many local flooding. Apparently to change people attitude we need more time and efforts to educate them. [xxxv]
Figure 10. The Flood Prone Areas and River Improvement Program in Bandung.[xxxvi]
Figure 11. The Flood Condition [xxxvii]
The air pollution problems also are happening in Bandung, because of over-population of private cars and motorcycles. This is a very good example of unsustainable transportation practices. It is reported that Pb, CO, NOx, SOx, and suspended solids pollutant level in Bandung has reached dangerous level for human.[xxxviii] Other sources of air pollutant are factories, households and solid waste incinerations.
Existing Spatial Planning Strategies
Bandung Municipality actually has identified the some of the problems above in two government plans. These plans had stated new strategies for achieving sustainable development. These documents are: Strategic Plan of Bandung City 2004 – 2008, and Bandung Master Plan 2013.
Strategic Plan of Bandung City 2004-2008
Strategic Plan of Bandung City has identified some strategic issues to be prioritised in the 5-years development program. The strategic development issues are: [xxxix]
- Human Resources Development
- Improving in human resources (public and government agents)
- Improving of education institutions in the City
- Economic Development
- Improving of community economy based on local potent and equal opportunity
- Creating interesting investment opportunity to promote job opportunities
- Reducing poverty
- Social – Cultural Development
- Creating social cohesion in the community
- Improving community participation in every development processes
- Utilising total community potential
- Controlling urbanisation
- Urban Planning
- Providing public services for all City residents
- Providing good infrastructures for new investments especially transportation system
- Developing Eastern part of the Bandung City
- Controlling flooding problems
- Maintaining the city infrastructures
- Reducing groundwater exploitation, with providing enough clean water supplies
- Reducing pollution to land, water and air
- Improving the life quality
- Creating efficient and effective solid waste management
- Good Governance
- Improving stakeholders participation in all development processes
- Promote professionalism, accountability, and responsive government agents
- Improve government infrastructure for public services
- Improve coordination between municipalities in Greater Bandung area
- Regional Budget
- Improving people participation in budgeting
- Creating accountable, effective, efficient regional budget system
These issues are later translated into Vision, which is “Promoting Bandung to be a clean, wealthy, good and friendly City, based on service industry.” Later every issue also is translated into more detail development programs. My respond for this plan is the time limitation as well as the direct impact of every program to the Urban Development.
Bandung Master Plan 2013
The purpose of this Master Plan was to create land use efficiency, integrate city development and improve urban services effectiveness. It also included some recommendations from 1992 Master Plan. Six Development Districts were proposed according to same geographic location inside the service line of Secondary Urban Centre. The district divisions are described below:
Table 6.District, Sub-District and Secondary Urban Centres names.
|No||Name of Development District||Name of Sub-District||Name of Secondary Urban Centres|
|1||Bojonagara||Andir, Cicendo, Sukasari, Sukajadi||Setrasari|
|2||Cibeunying||Cidadap, Coblong, Bandung Wetan, Cibeunying Kidul, Cibeunying Kaler, Sumur Bandung||Sadang Serang|
|3||Tegallega||Astana Anyar, Bojongloa Kidul, Bojongloa Kaler, Babakan Ciparay, Bandung Kulon||Kopo Kencana|
|4||Karees||Regol, Lengkong, Batununggal, Kiaracondong||Turangga|
|5||Ujungberung||Cicadas, Arcamanik, Ujungberung, Cibiru, part of Rancasari (Mekar Mulya Village)||Arcamanik|
|6||Gedebage||Bandung Kidul, Margacinta, the rest of Rancasari||Margasari|
Further this division and Urban Centres are presented in following figure.
Figure 12. The Primary and Secondary Urban Centres and Districts served in Bandung.[xl]
Master Plan 2013 proposed eight Urban Centres to create better urban services. Two Primary Centres are Asia Afrika Area (existing City Centres) and Gedebage Area. These were proposed to create a duo-centric city and to reduce traffic congestion in City Centres. Six Secondary Centres had been described in previous table. Further some facilities that would be catered in the Urban Centres are presented in next table.
Table 7. Facilities proposed in Primary and Secondary Urban Centres
|No||Facilities||Primary Urban Centres in Gedebage Areas||Secondary Urban Centres|
|1||Education Facilities||Tertiary Educations and Library||Academy Institutions and Library|
|2||Healthcare Facilities||B Class Hospital with 11 health specialist heath treatments||Class C hospital|
|3||Religious Facilities||Mosque, etc||Mosque, etc|
|4||Social Facilities||Multi-Purposed Hall||Multi-Purposed Hall|
|5||Sport and Recreation Facilities||Sport Complex with Stadium, Cinema, Theatre, Public Open Spaces||Mini Stadium, Museum, Theatre and Cinema|
|6||Government Facilities||Municipality Offices, Post Office, Military District Office, Religion Office Telecommunication, Electricity, Water Companies, and Fire-fighter Centre||Sub-District Office, Public Service Offices, Post Office, Military Sub-District Office, Religion Office, Sanitation Office, Electric Transformer Post|
|7||Retail Facilities||Wet Market, Retail Shops, Shopping Centres, Bank, Offices||Wet Market, Retail Shops|
|8||Transportation Facilities||Bus Terminal and Parking Lots||Transit Terminal and Parking Lots|
Land use Plan is also presented in following figure. And this plan actually translated the all development strategies in the Master Plan.
Figure 13. Bandung Land Use Plan 2013.[xli]
Because of Bandung role as the capital city of West Java Province, some strategic areas also were identified to serve the greater region, which will be presented in the next table.
Table 8. Provincial, Regional and Municipal Centres in Bandung
|Provincial and Regional Centres||Municipal Centres|
These locations further are presented in following figure
Figure 14. Provincial, Regional and Municipal Centres in Bandung. [xlii]
In respond to accessibility issue of the City, a transportation system was proposed. It includes Primary Artery, Secondary Artery, Primary Collector and Secondary Collector and Local Roads. The proposed plan consists of:
- Internal toll roads in Northern and Eastern area of Bandung
- Proposed railway road
- Improvement of existing railway station to become a regional station
- Build an integrated terminal in Gedebage that will cater public transport, container and train station
- Build a new bus terminal in the City perimeter
- Utilise Husein Sastranegara Airport until new airport area is build.
This transportation plans are presented in following figure.
Figure 15. Road Structures Plan of Bandung. [xliii]
Figure 16. Proposed Toll-Road Structures Plan of Bandung. [xliv]
The Master Plan 2013 proposed four land-use strategies, which prescribe conservation area, development area, urban facilities, population density and carrying capacity of the City.
First, conservation areas are selected to preserve the aquifer recharge, biodiversity in forest and park area in the city and historical buildings. This is further translated in the Conservation Plan in table and figure below.
Table 9. Detail Classification of Conservation Strategy
|Conservation Area Type||Detail||Location|
|Groundwater Recharge Area||Potential forest area for groundwater recharge||Northern of Bandung|
|Green Open Spaces||Riparian and lake areasArea surrounding to water springs
Setback of the railway road
Area underneath of high voltage grid
Setback of toll road
City Park and funeral
|All over the City|
|Nature Reserve||Recreation parkBiodiversity conservation area||Cidadap Sub-district|
|Heritage Conservation Areas||Building and areas that hold an important historical and cultural value of Bandung||Alun-alun, Asia Afrika, Braga, Cikapundung, Kelenteng, Pasar Baru, Oto Iskandardinata, ABC, Pecinan, Sumatra, Jawa, Aceh, Bali, Gudang Utara, etc|
|Hazardous Areas||Potential area for natural disasters, that is earthquake||Northern of Bandung|
Figure 17. Conservation Plan for Bandung. [xlv]
Development areas and development strategies are divided in several land use types which are: Housing, Government Facility, Trade, Service Industry, Education, Healthcare, Industry and Warehouse, Tourism and Recreation, Military.
For 2013, Bandung would prescribe housing in the 60% of the city area to cater 2’944’860 people. Two strategies were proposed are horizontal and vertical developments. Three housing densities are further suggested comprise high, medium and low density. High density proposed were the low cost and exclusive apartments in Tamansari, Andir, Braga, Cigondewah, Cicadas and Kiaracondong, on the Municipality-owned land. The medium density would be proposed in Tegallega, Karees, Gedebage. Lastly the low density would be proposed in Bojonegara, Cibeunying, and Ujungberung. Realising more limited land resources in Bandung, the Municipality found that horizontal developments were not possible anymore. Other programs proposed were the urban renewal of the slums area and the new housing developments in Gedebage. The new residential area would comprise 3000 empty parcels and 1000 utilised parcels.
A lot of Government Agencies Centres that exists in Bandung, such as PT Dirgantara Indonesia, PT INTI, PT POS, etc including Provincial Government were proposed to stay in the City.
For trade, Master Plan proposed to develop traditional market and shopping mall in Secondary Urban Centres to reduce the congestion to the Primary Centres. Some detail development will include:
- Redevelopment of traditional markets areas such as Andir, Kiaracondong, etc
- Relocation of land-use-inconsistent markets such as Suci, Kordon, Balubur, Simpang, Gegerkalong, Palasari, Sukajadi
- Redevelopment of wholesaler market in Caringin and Gedebage
The municipality realised the overcrowding of shopping centres and factory outlet in Bandung. These developments needed to be controlled and redirected to the Eastern of Bandung, Another mall-related problem is the traffic congestions along the artery and collector roads, while factory outlet developments also need corrections because of housing land use violations. Last problem to be control is the illegal street-hawker (PKL). This problem was proposed to be solved with proposing some designated areas for catering the street-hawker.
Relating to the Service Industry, the Plan proposed to develop this industry in Primary and Secondary Urban Centres, especially in Eastern part of the City. On the other hand, it was realised the need to reduce its intensity in Western Bandung.
For Education, the Master Plan suggested to control the development of education institutions and relocate them to Eastern Bandung, Jatinangor Area.
Regarding Healthcare developments, the Master Plan proposed improvement of Hasan Sadikin Hospital to become an International-recognised Teaching Hospital. Other similar prescription because of too intensified healthcare developments in Western was to regulate healthcares in Western part and improve more healthcares in Eastern part.
For Industries and Warehouses developments, it was realised that Bandung limited capacity for is catering the polluting and water-demanding industries, so they were proposed to be phased out. Industries that are proposed later to replace them are small-scale environmental-friendly industries, while the warehouses are suggested to be relocated to the Eastern area of the City.
In order to develop tourism and recreation area, some strategies were prescribed in the plan, which are:
- Preserve existing cultural tourism and recreation areas
- Develop new shopping mall and cultural tourism area in Eastern Bandung
- Control the development of negative tourism such as bar, pub, massage, karaoke, etc.
Lastly for land use, The Military areas in the city were only proposed to be preserved and secured. Building Densities also were also proposed in the Master Plan. These densities further are presented in table below.
Table 10. The Building Density Strategies
|No||Land Use Type||Max Built Area||Max Plot Ratio||Details|
|Road Class||Road Class|
|1||Conservation Area||2%||2%||2%||0||0.02||0||Only for important utilities|
|a||Housing||High Rise||25%||20%||15%||4||2.4||1.5||Building with more than 8 floors (apartment)|
|Midde Rise||25%||25%||25%||1.3||1.25||1.3||Building with 4 to 8 floors (low income flats)|
|Building Height Limit is 45% from road axes|
|The construction legal status must be preceded by design review and impact assessments|
|Low Rise||Building with 3 floors maximum|
|Low Rise – High Density||60%||70%||80%||1.2||1.4||1.6||Building density more than 40 unit/Ha and population density more than 200 people/Ha|
|Low Rise – Middle Density||50%||60%||60%||1.2||1.2||1.2||Building density between 15 and 40 unit/Ha and population density below 200 people/Ha|
|Low Rise – Low Density||40%||50%||60%||1.2||1.2||1.2||Building density less than 15 unit/Ha and average population density 75 people/Ha|
|Northern Bandung||20%||20%||20%||0.6||0.6||0.4||Building density less than 10 unit/Ha and average population density 50 people/Ha|
|b||Service||Area > 10’000 m2||25%||40%||50%||2||1.6||1.5||The construction legal status must be preceded by design review and impact assessments|
|Area > 5’000 m2||25%||40%||50%||2||1.6||1.5||The facilities provided must follow technical standard especially parking lots|
|Area from 1’001 to 5’000 m2||50%||50%||50%||1.5||1.5||1.2||Building Height Limit is 45% from road axes|
|Area from 200 (min) to 1’000 m2||60%||60%||60%||1.2||1.2||1.2|
|Primary Urban Centres||50%||50%||50%||4||3||2||The facilities provided must follow technical standard especially parking lots|
|Secondary Urban Centres||50%||50%||50%||3||2.5||2|
|c||Government Offices, Area < 5’000 m2||40%||50%||50%||1.6||1.5||1.2||The facilities provided must follow technical standard especially parking lots|
|d||Trade||Wholesaler||30%||x||x||20||x||x||The construction legal status must be preceded by design review and impact assessments|
|The facilities provided must follow technical standard especially parking lots|
|Building Height Limit is 45% from road axes|
|Primary Urban Centres||70%||70%||70%||2.8||2.1||1.4|
|Secondary Urban Centres||70%||70%||70%||2.8||2.1||1.4|
|e||Industrial||Large-scale Industry||40%||x||x||1.2||x||x||The construction legal status must be preceded by design review and impact assessments|
|f||Education||50%||50%||x||2||1||x||The construction legal status must be preceded by design review and impact assessments|
|The facilities provided must follow technical standard especially parking lots|
|Building Height Limit is 45% from road axes|
|g||Public Facilities||50%||50%||60%||1||1||0.6||The construction legal status must be preceded by design review and impact assessments|
|The facilities provided must follow technical standard especially parking lots|
|Building Height Limit is 45% from road axes|
Other plans proposed in Master Plan 2013 are:
- Clean Water Supply
- Sewage Water System and Treatment
- Solid Waste System and Treatment
- Fire-fighting Station
- Energy and Telecommunication
- Public Facilities
Further the first-three plans are explained in following figures.
Figure 18. Clean Water Supply Plan for Bandung. [xlvi]
Figure 19. Sewage Water Treatment Plan for Bandung. [xlvii]
Figure 20. Solid WasteTreatment Plan for Bandung. [xlviii]
Analysis of Spatial Planning Strategies
The Municipality of Bandung had realised many sustainable urban development strategies in the Strategic Plan of Bandung City and Master Plan 2013. One of the strategies was to develop natural and historical conservation plan. Unfortunately, due to current legal, social, economic as well as technical problems, many of the strategies could not be implemented entirely.
For example, the Master Plan 2013 was failed to realise the carrying capacity of Bandung (natural and social). Due to rapid urbanisation, the Master Plan 2013 had to increase the population capacity of Bandung from 750’000 persons (“Karsten Plan”) to 3 million persons. I am afraid that this will create further unsustainable problems in Bandung such as floods, landslides, groundwater deficiencies, etc. [xlix]
The Master Plan 2013 also tried to implement some sustainable urban development strategies such as proposing Primary and Secondary Urban Centres. On the other hand, for the metropolitan city with approximately 3 million population (in 2005), the Master Plan did not prescribe a clear mass transportation system. Furthermore, the sustainable traffic control method was not prescribed in the Master Plan also. I believe that this would worsen the traffic problems.
Further, the integrated land use and transportation planning approach in Master Plan 2013 were failed to be implemented due to land and development speculation by private sectors. The current commercials are mostly designated mostly in the city centres, while affordable housings are located in the suburban area. The separation actually will decrease accessibility, city vibrant life and livelihood issues. And this would worsen the city traffic jams.
Observing the present condition of the City, I believe that 2013 Master Plan had failed to realise the legal social and technical problems. Major private land ownership and limited space in the city had prohibited the Master Plan to be implemented. Some social issues like affordable housing for low income people were not proposed to be solved with integrated participatory approach although high density living strategy was already considered. While job creations pan and slum areas redevelopments also were not clearly revealed in the plan.
The Conservation Plan actually had recognised the important historical and nature areas in Bandung. Unfortunately, the natural conservation area in the North of Bandung could not be implemented due to legal issues with landowner and Central Government. Because increasing land value and less stringent development control in the area. Furthermore, this has increased the run-off of the Northern Bandung area, causing potential floods in the Southern Bandung.
Integrated water management and solid waste management were not prescribed in the Master Plan. Although, the implementation and improvement of existing practice still need more time. Some problems also exists such as solid waste sorting, sewage treatment plant were not prioritised to be done. Regarding the industries, the recognition of the need of development of environmental friendly industries was mentioned in the Plan. Although in the reality, the polluting industries were not effectively regulated yet.
In conclusion, because of existing conditions of urban development in Bandung, the Municipality of Bandung had tried its best effort in prescribing the sustainable urban development strategies in the Master Plan 2013. Unfortunately it is very difficult to implement this because of low public acceptance, less stringent development control as well as legal and financial limitations. Still, I hope that this paper would give some insights input to the Municipality of Bandung,
[xi] Report of Bandung City Forum on Housing Problem, 25th August 2001, Architecture Department ITB and COMBINE
[xiii] Statistics Agency Bandung City, Economic Census 2003
Kompas Jawa Barat 17/11/05
[xix] Family Planning Coordination Board, Bandung City, 2003
[xx] Bandung City Police Headquarters (Polwiltabes Bandung), Bandung City, 2003
[xxxii] Report of Bandung City Forum on Solid Waste Problem, 1st February 2002, ITB, PPLH and COMBINE
[xxxiv] Private Collection, Tanuwidjaja Gunawan
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- STUDENT’S HOME DESIGN WITH GREEN APPROACH
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