CREATIVE COLLABORATION IN URBAN POLDER IN JAKARTA, IN THE FRAWEWORK OF INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT
Urban Planner & Researcher
Green Impact Indonesia, Integrated Urban, Drainage and Environmental – Planning and Design Consultant
Joyce Martha Widjaya
Research and Development Institute of Water Resources (PUSAIR), and Research and Development Institute of Social, Economy, Culture and Community Participation (PUSEBRANMAS), Ministry of Public Works
Petra Christian University
Robby Yussac Tallar
Maranatha Christian University
Ph.D Candidate, Hydraulic and Ocean Engineering Department,
National Cheng Kung University (NCKU)
The urbanisations in developing countries had happened rapidly since 20th Century. The Coastal Cities were affected due to unplanned and uncontrolled developments which encroaching the rural and lowlands. And because of these unsustainable developments, many environmental issues happened to the cities such as floods. Floods were contributed by insufficient infrastructure for flood prevention and flood mitigation, unmanaged infrastructure and climate change.
Understanding these facts, we believe that Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is actually needed to be implemented to solve these problems. It could be defined as “A process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems.” In this case, IWRM actually comprises the efforts of controlling the land use change and urban surface run-off; drainage planning and management; landscape design; and infrastructure provisions, which conducted simultaneously. We concluded that to conduct successful IWRM, creative collaboration among Urban Planning Authority and Drainage Management Authority is compulsory.
In the urban’ low-lying lands like Jakarta, extra flood prevention and mitigation efforts are needed. A polder system is needed as is appropriate and effective for flood control. The polder is required to be managed as integrated drainage system consisting dikes, drains, retention ponds, outfall structures or pumping stations. Further, designed landscape in the polder is required to ensure its effectiveness. Polder dikes also must be planned and designed considering potential of social conflict and accessibility issue. Lastly, maintenance of infrastructures becomes a critical point for successful polder operation.
The Polder system also could not be planned separately from macro spatial plan, urban design and water management of the macro (river basin) system. Understanding this, we believed that creative collaboration in the Integrated Water Management especially in Polder System should be joined by Government, the People and the Private sector. This will eventually ensure the sustainable development of urban lowland areas.
Keywords: Collaborative Integrated Water Resource Management, Urban Polder, Flood Mitigation, Low Impact Development, Urban Polder, Jakarta
The world’s population has increased exponentially from 2.521 billion to 6.782 billion from 1950 to 2009.  The fast pace of urbanisations has increased the urban population from 30% in 1950 to 50% in 2007. Exponential urban population growth, rapid urbanisation, limited urban planning, less stringent development control, and land speculation, cause urban sprawling in the “Mega Cities” in the developing countries. 60 “Mega Cities” are emerging in the world by 2015, i.e. Singapore, Hong Kong, Jakarta, Mumbai, Bangkok and Manila (Schultz, 2006). 
“Mega Cities” are usually located in the coastal area, because they depend on the trade-port activities. Further, due to encroachments of lowlands areas; limited infrastructure; weak management; as well as the climate change further cause environmental disasters especially the major floods. Indonesian Mega-Coastal-Cities also faces similar floods issues. For better illustration of the flood problems and potential solution, we would discuss Jakarta further.
Jakarta is the capitol city of Indonesia and the largest metropolitan in South East Asia. It is currently inhabited by approximately 8 million persons, within area of 600 sq km.  Jakarta also faces unsustainable urban issues such as: urban sprawling; conversion of rural, water bodies and natural areas; traffic jams; air pollutions; urban slums and extreme annual flooding.
HISTORY OF FLOODS AND URBAN POLDERS IN JAKARTA
Jakarta has evolved becoming a metro region covering Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok, Puncak and Cianjur. And it was identified as National Strategic Area (Kawasan Strategis Nasional) due to the expansive economic growth. And the Central Government would need to facilitate its development process.
From all unsustainable urban issues of Jakarta, we would like to discuss more on Flooding. Floods were the regular event for Jakarta City. In 1619, Jakarta or previously named Batavia was developed by Jan Pieters Z. Coen with waterfront city concept or urban polder concept following the Amsterdam. And historically Jakarta was regularly inundated because of debit’s increases of its rivers.  And according to the documentation, Jakarta was hit by major floods in 1621, 1654, and 1918. Further, major inundations recorded happened in 1976, 1997, 2002, and 2007. 
Figure 1. Flood in Jakarta (1915)
Source: OVERSTROMING OP DE KERKLAAN TE BATAVIA/1915
Figure 2. Flood in Jakarta (2007)
Source: Public Works Department DKI Jakarta Presentation
The 1997’s Jakarta floods occurred city-wide and created the national tragedy which attracting public even worldwide attentions. The flood covered the area of 4 sub-districts (Kelurahan), 745 houses, displacing 2640 persons with 80 cm water level.  Jakarta flood got worse in 2002 affecting 60% of Jakarta. It also impacted Tangerang and Bekasi area. It was reported to kill 142 persons and displace 114,441 persons. Rp 4 trillions economic loss was estimated because of the flood. 
Lastly, The 2007 Jakarta flood affected more than 60% of Jakarta. It also affected Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi. 80 persons were reported killed because of flooding while 340,000 persons had been displaced. Furthermore, 74,000 houses were submerged and 670,000 people were left without electricity. 82.150 sq km of roads were reported damaged because of the floods. Rp 8 trillions economic loss was estimated because of the floods. This data actually illustrates the worsening floods in Jakarta, and increasing economic losses due to the flooding. 
Figure 3. The Flood Pattern of Jakarta in 2007. 
Source: Ministry of Public Works (2008), Jakarta Flood Hazards Mapping 2007
In general, Jakarta floods are caused of two groups of factors, which are: natural factors and human factors. They are: 
- Natural Factors
- Approximately, 40% of Jakarta areas are low-lying land below the highest astronomical tide.
- Flat topography of Jakarta (even concave in some area sop potential for flooding).
- 40% of Jakarta are located within the flood prone areas of the main rivers.
- High rain intensity in the upstream of Jakarta Metro Region.
- Extensive catchment affecting Jakarta (850 sq km).
- Limited water bodies capacity (drains, rivers, retention ponds and lakes).
- Geological and soil types of the Jakarta Metro Region are susceptible to land subsidence and erosion.
- Human Factors
- Disintegration of Spatial Plan and Drainage Master Plan (macro and micro level) of Jakarta Metro Region.
- Overpopulation in several areas (strategic areas and slums).
- Extreme groundwater extraction.
- Conversion of forests, wet agricultural lands
- Conversion of water bodies (wetlands, agricultural lands, drains, rivers, retention ponds, lakes).
- Unsustainable land development practice causing increasing soil sedimentation.
- Solid waste and waste-water pollution in the water bodies.
- The unclear system role-sharing among in environmental management especially in the drainage management.
Although not comprehensive enough, The Central Government and Provincial Government of Jakarta have done several studies and master plan related to Jakarta Flood Control. The studies are: 
- Master Plan NEDECO (1973)
- Study Of East Jakarta Flood Control Project (1989)
- The Study on Urban Drainage and Waste Water Project in The City of Jakarta (1991)
- The Study on Comprehensive River Water Management Plan in JABODETABEK (1997)
The Flood Control Strategies prescribed in these documents are: 
- Retaining water in upstream area with retention ponds and land and forest conservation;
- Applying rain-water infiltration as much as possible with infiltration well and open spaces;
- Building retention ponds in the middle areas;
- Flowing the water as fast as possible to the estuaries or the seas, with the capacity of rivers and drainages;
- Building urban polder systems in the Northern part of Jakarta;
- Securing lives, vital infrastructures as well as real estates.
Figure 4. Concepts of Flood Control of Jakarta Government
Source: Jakarta Province’s Public Works Department(2008), Flood Mitigation Handbook
Figure 5. Polder’s Master Plan in Jakarta.
Source: Jakarta Province’s Public Works Department (2008), Flood Mitigation Handbook
Table 1. Polders Planned by Public Works Department of Jakarta Province in Jakarta Region
Source: Jakarta Province’s Public Works Department (2008), Flood Mitigation Handbook
|No.||Name of Polder||Area (Ha)||No.||Name of Polder||Area (Ha)|
|03||Kapuk Poglar||550.00||23||Sumur Batu||278.00|
|04||Pantai Indah Kapuk Utara||250.00||24||Sunter Selatan||346.00|
|05||Pantai Indah Kapuk Selatan||150.00||25||Sunter Barat||1250.00|
|06||Muara Angke||50.00||26||Sunter Timur I Kodamar||200.00|
|07||Muara Karang||75.00||27||Sunter Timur I Utara||600.00|
|08||Pluit Industri||50.00||28||Sunter Timur III Rawa Badak||570.00|
|09||Teluk Gong||90.00||29||Sunter Timur II||1750.00|
|10||Jelambar Wijaya Kusumah||100.00||30||Kelapa Gading (Walikota)*||90.00|
|14||Rawa Kepah||229.00||34||Hankam Slipi||4.00|
|15||Pondok Bandung||90.00||35||Komplek TVRI Cengkareng||7.00|
|17||Siantar Melati||860.00||37||Tanjungan / Tegal Alur*||390.00|
Unfortunately, the master plans were not effectively implemented due to different land ownership as well as sectored approach. This could be seen in disintegration of the polder system in the North Jakarta.
CREATIVE COLLABORATION IN SUSTAINABLE URBAN POLDER PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
Answering this issue especially in Jakarta, we believe that Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is compulsory to be implemented. Global Water Partnership defined IWRM as, “A process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems.” 
In the implementation of The IWRM, the stakeholders should consider sustainability issues, comprising technical, social, economic and environmental aspect. IWRM is conducted with holistic approach and dealing with overall hydrological cycle. Further, there are 7 steps in IWRM such as: 
- Vision / Policy
- Situation Analysis
- Strategy Choice
- IWRM Plan
Lastly, The IWRM scope must be executed in one river basin. The river basin could consist of several administrations (district, municipalities, regency) boundaries as well as national boundaries. And it needs creative collaboration in the implementation.
For better understanding, we would explain briefly IWRM in Singapore. The Public Utilities Board is in-charge with IWRM in Singapore. The PUB is formed to ensure efficient, sufficient and sustainable water supply. The PUB duties comprise of the collection of rainfall run-off, water importing; treatment and distribution of clean water; collection and treatment of wastewater; as well as wastewater reclamation and desalination. This shows that IWRM would need collaboration between many elements of the Organisation as well as participation of Public – Private and People. 
In the urban’ low-lying lands, extra flood prevention and mitigation efforts are needed. A polder system is needed as is appropriate and effective for flood control. The Polder could be defined as “An Integrated Man-made Drainage System consisting Dikes, Drains, Retention Ponds, Outfall Structures or Pumping Stations. Designed Landscape in the Polder is required to ensure its effectiveness. Polder Dikes also must be planned and designed considering potential of soil strength, land subsidence, social conflict as well as accessibility issue. The maintenance of infrastructures becomes a critical point for successful polder operation. Lastly, the Polder system must be planned in integration from macro spatial plan, urban design and water management of the macro (river basin) system.”
Figure 6. Simplified Illustration of Polder System 
Sources: Ministry of Public Works et.all. Urban Polder Guideline
In the research collaboration between The Netherlands Government, UNESCO IHE, Government of Republic Indonesia, we found main aspects for implementing sustainable urban polder as follow: 
- Institutional Aspect,
- Planning Aspect,
- Design Aspect,
- Land Acquisition Aspect,
- Development Control Aspect,
- Construction Aspect,
- Operation, Maintenance and Management Aspects,
- Monitoring and Evaluation Aspects.
Following the IWRM framework, we would need the polder management institution to ensure the sustainability of the Polder system. The Polder Board is an institution that is in charge to manage the polder systems especially in water management and flood protection measures. Polder Institution would be formed from Government agencies, Private sector and Communities that related to the Polder. The legal basis for supporting the existence of the Polder Board is really needed. 
The difficulty of solving flooding or managing the Jakarta drainage system is actually in role – sharing of Central Government, Provincial Government, Municipality, Private Sectors (Developers), Professional Consultants & Contractors and lastly Communities. Because of Jakarta Metro Region status as the National Strategic Area, the Central Government must coordinate and facilitate the development of the area. For easier illustration, in we would describe two aspects of Urban Polder Development that need Creative Collaboration.
Table 2. Example of Inter-related Role of Government, Private and Communities in North Jakarta Municipality in Spatial and Drainage Planning-and-Management Aspects. 
|Role in Urban Development Aspects related to Urban Polder||Level||Agencies In-Charge or Related to the Aspects|
|Spatial Planning & Management||Central Government||
|Jakarta Provincial Government||
|North Jakarta Municipality||
|Real Estate Developer||
|Drainage & Flood Control – Planning, Design & Management||Central Government||
|Jakarta Provincial Government||
|North Jakarta Municipality||
|Real Estate Developer||
|Non-Government Organisations/ Communities||
Due to complicated jurisdictions above, we understand that we could not dismantle the present organisations to create Polder Board (Urban Polder Organisation). We even feel that the Polder Board and its system should be flexible and adaptive to the current organisations. We just need to reallocate the task and financial benefit within the urban polder management. Further, the effective coordination must be ensured for Sustainable Urban Polder Development.
To illustrate the Creative Collaboration, we took the case of “Creating Urban Polder Master Plan of Jakarta Province.” We would propose the output of the process such as:
- Provincial Polder Zoning Direction
- Provincial Polder Master Plan
- Provincial Polder Design Engineering Design
- Provincial Polder Construction, Operation and Management.
And to create successful Urban Polder in Jakarta Province, we need these steps:
- Setting Polder Organisation and the Vision of Urban Polder;
- Data Collection (Politic, Social, Economical and Technical Data);
- Topographical and Infrastructure Survey;
- Data Analysis (Integrated Approach – Policy, Socio and Economic Analysis);
- Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA);
- Regular Public Consultations;
- Preparation of Integrated Spatial Plan & Detail Master Plan (Spatial Use and Infrastructure), which include:
- Drainage and flood control plan
- Clean water treatment and distribution plan
- Pollution control, waste-water (sewage) collection and treatment plan
- Solid waste management plan
- Wastewater treatment and collection plan
- Landscape plan;
- Preparation of Zoning Direction (including Polder Direction);
- Preparation of Urban Design Plan;
- Preparation of Feasibility Study of Polder;
- Land Acquisition
- Preparation of Detail Engineering Design (DED) for Polder System (dikes, drainage, retention ponds, outfall structures, pumping stations, wastewater treatment and pipelines);
- Controlling the urban surface run-off with Low Impact Development (LID) method;
- Landscape Design;
- Development Control (Permit Application and Issuing Process);
- Development Facilitation (Dissemination, Training, R&D etc);
- Law Enforcement (Incentives, Disincentives & Sanction);
- Other Aspects Monitoring (Building Design, EIA & Infrastructure Construction);
- Preparation of Standard Operation Procedures (SOP) of Polder;
- Infrastructure Construction;
- Infrastructure Operation and Management;
- Legal Management;
- Financial Management;
- Other Aspects Management (Solid Waste and Wastewater);
- Monitoring (Flood System, Water Pollution, Water Quality);
- Evaluation (Organisation, SOP, Infrastructure, etc);
- Infrastructure Improvement.
These steps should be shared by all stakeholders as prescribed below:
Table 3. Role Sharing and Collaboration in Polder in Province Level
Facilitation = Fac
Initiation for Public Projects = Ini*
Initiation for Private Projects = Ini*
In charge with = Chg
Support = Su
|Steps in Creating Sustainable Polder||Central Govern-ment||Jakarta Provin-cial Govern-ment||North Jakarta Muni-cipality||Real Estate Deve-loper
& Private Com-panies
|Profes-sional Con-sultant & Con-tractor||Local Com-munities|
|Setting Polder Organisation and the Vision of Urban Polder;||Fac||Ini||Su||Su||Su||Su|
|Data Collection (Politic, Social, Economical and Technical Data);||Fac||Ini||Su||Su||Chg||Su|
|Topographical and Infrastructure Survey;||Fac||Ini||Su||Ini||Chg||Su|
|Data Analysis (Integrated Approach – Policy, Socio and Economic Analysis);||Fac||Ini||Su||Su||Chg||Su|
|Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) ;||Fac||Ini||Su||Su||Chg||Su|
|Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA);||Fac||Su||Ini *||Ini **||Chg||Su|
|Regular Public Consultations;||Fac||Ini||Su||Su||Chg||Su|
|Preparation of Integrated Spatial Plan (Spatial Use and Infrastructure)||Fac||Ini||Su||Su||Chg||Su|
|Preparation of Integrated Detail Master Plan (Spatial Use and Infrastructure), which include:||Fac||Ini||Ini *||Ini **||Chg||Su|
|–||Drainage and flood control plan|
|–||Clean water treatment and distribution plan|
|–||Pollution control, waste-water (sewage) collection and treatment plan|
|–||Solid waste management plan|
|Preparation of Zoning Direction (including Polder Direction);||Ini||Ini||Su||Su||Chg||Su|
|Preparation of Urban Design Plan;||Fac||Fac||Ini *||Ini **||Chg||Su|
|Preparation of Feasibility Study of Polder;||Fac||Fac||Ini *||Ini **||Chg||Su|
|Preparation of Detail Engineering Design (DED) for Macro Polder System||Fac||Ini||Su||Su||Chg||Su|
|Preparation of Detail Engineering Design (DED) for Micro Polder System||Fac||Fac||Ini *||Ini **||Chg||Su|
|Controlling the urban surface run-off with Low Impact Development (LID) method;||Fac||Fac||Ini *||Ini **||Chg||Su|
|Landscape Design;||Fac||Fac||Ini *||Ini **||Chg||Su|
|Other Aspects Monitoring (Building Design, EIA & Infrastructure Construction);||Fac||Chg||Chg||Su||Chg||Su|
|Preparation of SOP of Polder;||Fac||Fac||Ini *||Ini **||Chg||Su|
|Micro Polder Infrastructure Construction;||Fac||Fac||Ini *||Ini **||Chg||Su|
|Infrastructure Operation and Management;||Fac||Chg||Chg||Chg||Chg||Su|
|Other Aspects Management (Solid Waste and Wastewater);||Fac||Chg||Chg||Chg||Chg||Su|
|Monitoring (Flood System, Water Pollution, Water Quality);||Fac||Ini||Su||Su||Chg||Su|
|Evaluation (Organisation, SOP, Infrastructure, etc);||Fac||Ini||Ini *||Ini **||Chg||Su|
|Macro Polder Infrastructure Improvement.||Fac||Ini||Su||Su||Chg||Su|
|Micro Polder Infrastructure Improvement.||Fac||Fac||Ini *||Ini **||Chg||Su|
And to be able to produce this, creative multi-disciplinary collaboration must be implemented in the process, including urban planner, drainage engineer, geotechnical engineer, civil engineer and landscape architect. Even in the later stage, the professional polder management team should be involved in the operation and maintenance of polder system.
We would like to conclude that Jakarta is facing great environmental pressures especially because unsustainable urban development. The low-lying areas of North Jakarta suffer the most because of the environmental degradations. Because of that, Sustainable Urban Polder has to be implemented in the area following the Sustainable Urban Development Framework. And hopefully we could reduce the impact of floods. Creative collaboration is urgently needed in the process of creating Sustainable Urban Polder due to its extensive administration boundary, extensive urban sectors approach and various land ownerships. This enforces the need of Creative Collaboration in Sustainable Waterfront Cities place-making.
· The Netherlands Ministries of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, and of Spatial Planning, Housing and Environment: Prof. Bart Schultz, PhD, MSc, and Mr. Martijn Elzinga.;
· UNESCO-IHE: F.X. Suryadi PhD, MSc ;
· Research and Development Institute of Water Resources (PUSAIR): Dr. Arie Setiadi Moerwanto, MSc,, Dr. William Putuhena, MSc., Dr. Wanny Adidarma, MSc., Ir. Sri Hetty, MSc.,Ir. Ratna Hidayat,, Rohani ST.;
· Dr. Ir. I.F. Poernomosidhi Poerwo, M.Sc, MCIT. MIHT., Scientific Officer and Ex-Director of Spatial Planning Directorate II, Ministry of Public Works, Indonesia.
· Forum Masyarakat Peduli Lingkungan Pluit/ FMPLP : Mr. Agus Johan, Mr. Laringan, etc.
· Polder Task Team assisting PUSAIR: Denny ST., Karmelia Oktaviani SE. Petty ST., Roy Sihombing ST.,
· Green Impact Indonesia Team: Dr. (Cand) Robby Yussac Tallar, MT. Dipl-IWRM., Mustakim ST., Maman Hidayat BE., Dwi Sugiarto ST., Septian Lumeno ST., Yansen ST., Yulius., Roni Kurniawan, Agus Sudarman, Cepy, Surya, Adi Afriana;
 Schultz, Bart (2006),
 Jakarta Province’s Public Works Department(2008),
 Jakarta Province’s Public Works Department(2008), Flood Mitigation Handbook
 Jakarta Province’s Public Works Department(2008), Flood Mitigation Handbook
 Ministry of Public Works, Directorate General of Water Resources Management (2008), Jakarta FHM http://www.hkv.nl/documenten/Jakarta_Flood_Hazard_Mapping_Framework_MH.pdf
 CK-Net Indonesia (2007), Work Program of ToT IWRM & Climate Change
Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan and Malone-Lee, Lai Choo (2009),
 Indonesian Ministries of Public Works ,et.all. (2009), Guidelines on Urban Polder Development, http://www.pusair-pu.go.id/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=41
 Research and Development Institute of Water Resources (PUSAIR) (2007), Final Report ;
Indonesian Ministries of Public Works ,et.all. (2009), Guidelines on Urban Polder Development, http://www.pusair-pu.go.id/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=41
CK-Net Indonesia (2007), Work Program of ToT IWRM & Climate Change
Indonesian Ministries of Public Works and the Netherlands Ministries of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, and of Spatial Planning, Housing and Environment, Partners for Water, Rijkswaterstaat, and UNESCO-IHE (2009), Guidelines on Urban Polder Development, http://www.pusair-pu.go.id/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=41
Jakarta Province’s Public Works Department (2008), Flood Mitigation Handbook
Ministry of Public Works, Directorate General of Water Resources Management (2008), Jakarta Floods Project, Flood Hazards Mapping http://www.hkv.nl/documenten/Jakarta_Flood_Hazard_Mapping_Framework_MH.pdf
Research and Development Institute of Water Resources (PUSAIR), Ministry of Public Works, Republic of Indonesia (2007), Final Report of Research on Development of Flood Control Technology for Sustainable Waterfront City
Schultz, Bart (2006), Opportunities and Threats for Lowland Development, Concepts for Water Management, Flood Protection and Multifunctional Land-Use. In Proceedings of the 9th Inter-Regional Conference on Environment-Water, 17 – 19 May, 2006.
Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan and Malone-Lee, Lai Choo (2009), Applying Integrated Ecological Planning and Adaptive Landscape Evaluation Tool for Developing Countries in the Framework of Sustainable Spatial Planning and Development, Study Case Bintan Island, Indonesia, In International Seminar Positioning Planning in Global Crises, Bandung November 2009, Department of Regional and City Planning, School of Architecture, Planning and Policy Development, Institut Teknologi Bandung
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