THE INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND IT’S IMPLEMENTATION IN SINGAPORE
1 Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan
1 MSc. Environmental Management (NUS), S.T. (ITB)
Urban Planner & Researcher,
Green Impact Indonesia
Integrated Urban, Drainage and Environmental Planning and Design
This paper was prepared originally prepared for MSc. Environmental Management, Environmental Law Course in 2005. But we would like to share this in order to give clearer perspectives of integrated environmental law and its role in developing Sustainable City of Singapore.
Environmental Law is defined as a body of state and federal statutes intended to protect the environment, wildlife, land, beauty, prevent pollution, over-cutting of forests, save endangered species, conserve water, develop and follow general plans and prevent damaging practices. The particular law gives individuals and groups the right to bring legal actions or seek court orders to enforce the protections or demand revisions of private and public activity which may have detrimental effects on the environment.
Environmental law has a different formula for every country since its different legal system, legislation system, and socio-economic condition. In several developed countries this particular regulation usually was made after a huge environmental accident that draws public attention. This happened before the raise of sustainable development international awareness in 1970’s.
In 1980 The World Conservation Union (IUCN), United Nations Environmental Protection Agency (UNEP) and World Wildlife Fund (WWF) introduced the World Conservation Strategy (WCS) that initiate numbers of new action plans, policies and programs that support the sustainability law.  This law further is elaborated in ‘Caring for The Earth that contains minimum sustainability law such as:
- Land use planning and development control
- Sustainable use of renewable resources and non-wasteful use of non-renewable resources
- Pollution prevention
- Efficient use of energy
- Control of hazardous substances
- Waste disposal
- Conservation of species and ecosystems
All these aspects actually were introduced to create more comprehensive environmental law than the previous one that usually talk only about pollution control.
Further the Caring for The Earth also went for the more advance prescription like: 
- Application of precautionary principle and the use of best technology related to the pollution
- Economic incentives and disincentives (based on taxes, charges and other)
- Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be conducted in the new developments and new policies
- Environmental Auditing that be conducted periodically
- Effective monitoring, detection of infringements and adjustment of regulations when necessary
- Public access to EIA, environmental audit data and monitoring result
- Public access to production, use and disposal of hazardous substances
International Environmental law could be defined as “A plethora of legally-binding international agreements now encompass a wide variety of issue-areas, from terrestrial, marine and atmospheric pollution through to wildlife and biodiversity protection.” 
The important principle adopted in most of international environmental law is The Golden Rule, polluter pays principle, the precautionary principle, the principle of sustainable development, environmental procedural rights, common but differentiated responsibilities, intra-generational and inter-generational equity, the “common concern of humankind,” and the common heritage. 
The law could be categorised in two types of law such as Soft and Hard Law. The International Soft Law are the international agreements that binding only the parties that ratified them. These include 1972’s United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 1983’s World Commission on Environment and Development, 1992’s United Nations Conference on Environment and Development and 2002’s World Summit on Sustainable Development have been particularly important. The soft law actually comprises multilateral and bilateral treaties (including convention, agreement, protocol, etc.). 
On the other hand, Hard Law or known as Customary International law comprises norms and rules that bind all countries in the world. One example of customary international law is the Principle 21 of the Stockholm Declaration. 
Beside that, Judicial Decisions from International Court also are categorised under the Hard International Law. This includes the International Court of Justice (ICJ); the international Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS); the European Court of Justice; regional treaty tribunals. And probably the World Trade Organisation‘s Dispute Settlement Board (DSB) would be included in the near-future. Some cases from the courts are the Trail Smelter Arbitration, 33 AJIL (1939); and the various nuclear weapons testing cases such as between New Zealand and France before the International Court of Justice. 
And all the International environmental law are very important for the world to be sustainable and mitigate its degradation.
The Legislation Process of Environmental Law
Singapore is one island country with highly-urbanised city characteristic and presumably no natural resources. Since the economic development comes from the trade and industry, mostly of environmental issues in Singapore are related to industrial and urban pollution, and the protection of nature areas.
In the Constitution of The Republic of Singapore, Chapter 1, Part V, actually it is stated that Singapore is led by the President, as the Head of State. Further also in the Constitution, Chapter 2, Part V, it is stated that the Executive authority is vested in the President and the Cabinet (consists of the Prime Minister and some Ministers). The Cabinet will control the Government and will be responsible to Parliament. This actually emphasises the parliamentary system in Singapore. The President shall appoint as Prime Minister from a Member of Parliament that trusted by the majority of Parliament. 
The Legislature in Singapore is actually President and the Parliament as mentioned in the Constitution, Section 38. While law making process can be find in the Constitution, Section 58 and 59. The bills are passed by Parliament and assented to by the President and shall become law. Further the bills come into operation when publicised in the Gazette. This process is also applies to the Environmental Law.
Further the Judicial System of Singapore is reviewed. In the Article 93 of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore, we can find that judicial power in Singapore and the Supreme Court and subordinate courts. Further the Judiciary is led by the Honourable Chief Justice.
The Supreme Court consists of the Court of Appeal and the High Court that deal with civil and criminal matters.  While the Subordinate Courts are constituted by the Subordinate Courts Act, and comprise the District Courts, the Magistrates’ Courts, the Coroners’ Court, the Juvenile Court and the Small Claims Tribunals. Several other courts also are comprised in the Subordinate Courts.
One more important element of law enforcement is the Attorney-General. The functions are to advise the Government upon such legal matters, and to institute, conduct or discontinue proceedings for any offence as the Public Prosecutor. Other important rule is that The Attorney-General is independent, including from control of the government. Further we are going to focus on the Singapore Environmental Law. 
Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law in Singapore
Under the leadership of Prime Minister (PM) Lee Kuan Yew, actually many environmental improvements had been achieved in Singapore. For instance the spitting and littering, Singapore actually succeeds reducing these with a maximum fine of $2000 for offender. This shows the determination of the government to make Singapore from the Third World Country to the First. 
PM Lee also initiated the tree planting program that involve plant experts and soil experts to study and advice this program. In November 1971, He started the annual tree planting day, involving Member of Parliament, community centres, and leaders, also in that time he sent botanists to bring back 8,000 varieties and get some 2,000 adapting to Singapore and thriving. All these actions actually have delivered Singapore become the Garden City.
In reducing the pollution control, Singapore set up the Anti-Pollution Unit, and initiated pollution control program, such as: cleaning up Singapore River, settling of street vendors, phasing out the pig farms that pollute the stream, monitoring the air conditions, reducing noise pollution. This is actually a great achievement in environmental improvement. 
This action has resulted in the present Singapore condition which can be considered relatively clean, ordered and well-planned country. Nevertheless the problems of land scarcity and high population actually continue reducing and disturbing the remaining natural areas.
Actually in the first Singapore Green Plan (1993), nineteen (19) terrestrial sites and four (4) coral reefs area were identified and designated as “nature areas” which covers 5 % of Singapore’s total land area. But so far the government has only gazetted of Sungei Buloh and the Labrador Nature Park to the existing ones. The Government actually can do more with the nature reserves in Singapore.
Facing lack of water supply, Singapore had initiated a lot of environmental policy, excluding the water import policy from Malaysia. Those two environmental policies are desalinisation project and pollution control in the water bodies. These show that Government is aware of the environmental problem because of its relation to the livelihood of the country. 
The other environmental problem actually is the marine pollution which comes from sea transportation that passes Singapore.  Because the sea transports are very important to the Singapore economy, this problem actually needs more attention.
Actually the agencies’ jurisdiction in enforcement of Environmental Law in Singapore can be described in the next table: 
Table 1. Singapore Authorities and Agencies related to Environmental Law
|Ministry||Area of Competence|
|Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources (MEWR) |
|Divisions under MEWR|
|Planning Division||Corporate planning process of the MEWR|
|3P Network Division||Corporate communications and public education strategies|
|International Relations Division||Co-operation at Government-to-Government level and with international organizations; and multilateral environmental agreements|
|Strategic Policy Division||Strategic policies, research and analysis|
|Water Studies Division||Strategic environmental policies, research and analysis relating to water, wastewater and drainage|
|Agency under MEWR|
|National Environment Agency, NEA||Environmental protection, environmental public health, meteorological services|
|Public Utilities Board, PUB||Secure adequate supply of water at affordable cost.|
|Ministry of National Development (MND)|
|Divisions under MND|
|Strategic Planning||Land use planning, development strategies, control & planning system, urban redevelopment and nature conservation|
|Housing||Public housing and Town Councils|
|Planning & Research Unit||Policy reviews and economic research and analysis|
|Agency under MND|
|Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA)||Urban development|
|Building Construction Authorities (BCA)||Building and public works construction, safety and management|
|National Parks Board (NParks)||National Parks and nature conservation in general and manage recreational parks|
|The Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA)||Animal quarantine, control of trade in wildlife|
|Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI)|
|Economic Development Board, EDB||Foreign investment promotion|
|International Enterprise Singapore, IE Singapore||Trade promotion|
|Jurong Town Corporation, JTC||Management of industrial zones|
|SPRING Singapore||Standards and certification to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises|
|A*STAR ||Science and technology development|
|The Singapore Tourism Board (STB)||Develop and champion tourism|
|Energy Market Authority, EMA||Regulates the energy utilities market|
|Sentosa Development Corporation, SDC||Manages and develops Sentosa to be leisure destination in South-East Asia|
|Ministry of Health|
|Department of Scientific Services||Food testing|
|Health Promotion Board||Promoting Healthy Lifestyle, Affordable and Reliable Medical Services|
|Ministry of Manpower|
|The Quality Workplaces Department (QWPD)||Occupational safety and health at work|
|Occupational Safety and Health Training and Promotion Centre (OSHTC)||Occupational safety and health training and promotion|
|The Ministry of Transport (MOT)|
|The Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS)||Standard in safety, quality and service in civil aviation and airport operations|
|Land Transport Authority (LTA)||Vehicular matters|
|Maritime and Port Authority (MPA)||Marine pollution|
|The Public Transport Council (PTC)||Create a comprehensive and integrated bus network; assure quality bus services; and maintain affordable bus and train fares for the public|
Because of its economic sources in Industry and trade, actually Singapore government tries to implement environmental law that does not discourage investors to put their money in Singapore. One of policies is actually not providing Mandatory Environmental Impact Assessment Law. This seems a good indication how Singapore set more investor-friendly environment law.
Further we are going to examine the Singapore Environmental Law and suggest the improvement in the framework of sustainability law.
Land Use Planning and Development Control
Land use planning holds the main role of reducing the impact of pollution as well as revitalizing the economic activity and reducing cost of the urban and industrial infrastructure. Thirteen obvious regulations in planning are:
- Planning Act (Chapter 232)
- Urban Redevelopment Authority Act (Chapter 340)
- Building And Construction Authority Act (Chapter 30a)
- Building Control Act (Chapter 29)
- Building Maintenance And Strata Management Act 2004 (No. 47 Of 2004)
- National Parks Board Act (Chapter 198a), Section 6
- Parks and Trees Act 2005 (No. 4 of 2005)
- Land Transport Authority of Singapore Act (Chapter 158a), Section 6
- Housing And Development Act (Chapter 129), Section 13
- Jurong Town Corporation Act (Chapter 150), Section 12
- Sentosa Development Corporation Act (Chapter 291 ), Section 9
- Public Utilities Act (Chapter 261), Section 6
- Public Transport Council Act (Chapter 259b), Section 4
Further only two acts are going to be presented in the paper.
Planning Act (Chapter 232)
As described in the act, the main purpose of this act is to provide for the planning and improvement of Singapore. Planning Act (Chapter 232), Section 5, describes that Minister of National Development appoints the competent planning authorities to produce Master Plan and its amendments, Certified Interpretation Plans, Conservation areas and guidelines for building or lands. This regulation affects every development including the nature reserves.
In Part III of this act, actually the Development and Subdivision of Land are controlled. This means that no person shall without planning permission carry out any development of any land outside a conservation area; and no person without conservation permission carry out any works within a conservation area. The conviction for offender is a maximum fine $200,000.
Further application for planning permission, conservation permission or subdivision permission shall be made to competent authority to determine this permission with reference to Master Plan.
Urban Redevelopment Authority Act (Chapter 340),
The main authority that regulates land use planning in Singapore is actually Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA). This is described in the Urban Redevelopment Authority Act (Chapter 340), Section 6. The main duties of URA are:
- to prepare or execute or prepare and execute proposals, plans and projects for the clearance, development and redevelopment of such land … approved by the Minister …
- to undertake land planning and to manage and control the development of land in Singapore
- to inform and advise the Government on matters relating to land planning and the development of land in Singapore, etc
The statutes actually give a very clear description how URA take controls in land use planning that further affect the urban and environmental quality of Singapore.
These two laws actually are fine references how Singapore succeeds in land use planning and development, but still there is a loophole in the dual land use, for example the Mac Ritchie Reservoir that used by Public Utility Board (PUB) and National Park Board (NParks) which needs further jurisdiction clarification and management cooperation between agencies.
Sustainable Use of Renewable Resources, Non-Wasteful Use of Non-Renewable Resources and Efficient Use of Energy
Because Singapore has limited natural resources, the Government has created certain laws that regulate the efficient use of resources such as:
- National Environment Agency Act (Chapter 195), Section 11
- Public Utilities Act (Chapter 261), Section 6
- Energy Market Authority of Singapore Act (Chapter 92b), Section 6
- Electricity Act (Chapter 89A)
- Gas Act (Chapter 116A)
- District Cooling Act (Chapter 84A)
- Fisheries Act (Chapter 111), Section 9 to Section 12
National Environment Agency Act (NEA) (Chapter 195)
NEA Act (Chapter 195), Section 11 actually describes the role of National Environment Agency (NEA) to promote energy efficiency, the use of clean energy, the use of clean technologies, the use of efficient pollution control technologies and waste recycling.
Public Utilities Act (Chapter 261)
Public Utilities Act (Chapter 261), Section 6, actually obliges the Public Utilities Board to promote water conservation.
The two examples above actually describe how the government is aware of these resources use, although these regulations do not apply to resident of Singapore or encourage them to participate. In the future more specific law in this aspect needs improvement.
Pollution Prevention, Control of Hazardous Substances and Waste Disposal
Singapore has a lot of regulations related to the pollution controls, control hazardous substances and waste disposal. Several related acts that deal with this matter are:
- Environmental Protection Control Act (EPCA) (Chapter 94A)
- National Environment Agency Act (NEA) (Chapter 195)
- Environmental Public Health Act (EPHA) (Chapter 95)
- Factories Act (Chapter 104)
- Merchant Shipping (Civil Liability and Compensation for Oil Pollution) Act (Chapter 180), Section 27
- Prevention Of Pollution Of The Sea Act (Chapter 243), Section 6 and 17
- Public Utilities Act 1995 (No. 26 of 1995.), Section 130
- Miscellaneous Offences (Public Order and Nuisance) Act (Chapter 184)
- Hazardous Waste (Control of Export, Import and Transit) Act (Chapter 122a)
The two laws that are further discussed in this paper are the National Environment Agency Act (NEA), and Environmental Protection Control Act (EPCA) (Chapter 94A)
National Environment Agency Act (NEA) (Chapter 195)
The success of pollution control in Singapore can not be separated to the existence of NEA as the agency that control environmental impact in Singapore. The main functions of NEA are clearly described in this act in the section 11 which are:
- to identify, … environmental health concerns … , and to develop strategies of prevention and control in connection with such matters;
- to ensure cleanliness of public areas through the supervision of cleansing services and the prevention of littering;
- to manage and regulate air emissions from industrial premises, trade premises and vehicles;
- to monitor and assess the water quality of inland and coastal waters, and to manage and regulate the discharge of trade effluent, oil, chemicals, sewage and any other polluting matter into water courses or on land;
- to construct, develop, manage and regulate refuse treatment and disposal facilities and to regulate refuse collection and disposal;
- to control land contamination and regulate the remediation of contaminated land;
- to regulate the import, export, possession, storage, transportation, sale and use of hazardous substances and the import, export, storage, transportation, collection, treatment and disposal of toxic industrial waste;
- to manage and regulate environmental noise, and to monitor and assess ambient air and noise levels;
- to promote energy efficiency, the use of clean energy, the use of clean technologies, the use of efficient pollution control technologies and waste recycling;
- to embark on educational programmes to promote and encourage public awareness of and participation in environmental matters; etc
It actually shows how broad is the jurisdiction of NEA, and the indication that the NEA officers may be out number. One interesting statement made by NEA is, “The NEA cannot do its work alone. It will work with its partners in the community, in industries and commerce, and the public sector to sustain a clean and healthy living environment loved and cared for by everyone.”
Environmental Protection Control Act (EPCA) (Chapter 94A)
One fine example of the pollution control tools in Singapore is the Environmental Protection Control Act (EPCA). The EPCA actually is passed to replace the Clean Air Act, the Water Pollution Control and Drainage Act, the Poisons Act and to enforce the Environmental Public Health Act (EPHA).
EPCA actually controls 4 main areas: Air pollution, Water pollution, Noise pollution, and Toxic and hazardous substances
The EPCA regulation is administrated by the Director of Environmental Pollution Control with a team of Deputy and assistant. Actually It doesn’t oblige for the Director-General or officer to inspect any building or site to ascertain the compliance to this act that emphasizes that compliance is identified from the factory managers’ reports.
Further in Section 7, Part III, EPCA authorizes Director-General to give licence to ensure that environmental pollution is managed and controlled which require the owner of factory:
- to install and operate industrial plant, fuel burning equipment, control equipment or treatment plant in or on the scheduled premises;
- to repair those equipments;
- to erect or alter the height or dimension of any chimneys;
- to alter the method of operation or process used to prevent or reduce air, water or noise pollution or hazards;
- to install and operate instruments and carry out tests and keep records that required; to use a specified type of fuel to prevent or reduce air pollution;
- to carry out any of the requirements imposed on him under this paragraph within such period as may be specified
The highly polluted industry also requires permissions before starting, which shows that the Government has implemented the pollution prevention.
This regulation also emphasises the emission standard in the Clean Air Standards Regulations. In the Air Pollution Control Part, EPCA obliges the user to maintain and operate air pollution control equipment, to prohibit dark smoke from chimney, to control of air impurities according to the standard rate of emission prescribed in that industry.
In the Water Pollution Part, EPCA prescribes licence for discharge of trade effluent, oil, chemical, sewage or other polluting matters. Particularly in Section 15, it is said that “Any person who discharges or causes or permits to be discharged any trade effluent, oil, chemical, sewage or other polluting matters into any drain or land, without a licence from the Director-General, shall be guilty of an offence.” The offender can get maximum $5000 fine.
This part also set the obligation to set treatment plant for trade effluent with non-compliance fine maximum to $20,000. it also gives penalties for discharging toxic substances or hazardous substances into inland waters to maximum $50,000 or to 12 months imprisonment or to both.
In Section 18 of EPCA, The Director-General also is authorised to require any person that has polluted the water or land to clean it up within a specified time. This is one implementation of the polluters-pay principle.
Additionally in Section 19, The EPCA obliges person who carries out storing or transporting of toxic substance:
- to use a method of storage, operation or process to prevent water pollution;
- to install and operate pollution monitoring equipment to prevent and detect any leakage or discharge;
- to carry out specific tests on equipment, tanks or any other related facilities and to submit the results of these tests;
- to prepare and submit contingency plan for events of accidental discharge or spillage of oil, chemicals, trade effluent or other polluting matters; and etc
And any person who fails to comply this must pay a maximum fine of $20,000. This is an excellent implementation of the precautionary principle.
Part VII of EPCA regulates the importation and sale of hazardous substances. In Section 22, It is said that, “No person shall import, possess for sale, sell or offer for sale any hazardous substance unless he holds a licence …”
Noise identified from building and road construction is regulated under Part VIII of EPCA. The construction owner is obliged to notify the Director-General and gets permission before doing such activity. In Section 4, it is said that, “Any person who fails to comply with a notice issued under subsection (3) shall be guilty of an offence and … liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $10,000.” Industrial noise also is regulated in Part VIII, especially the limitation and permit in premises.
Further in Part X, it is described the obligation to study on pollution control, self-monitoring and submission of results and mandatory insurance. While under Part XI, the authorisation of powers of arrest, and to enter on land adjacent to works also penalty for obstructing Director-General in his duty are provided.
It can be concluded that EPCA is a more comprehensive than the previous acts. But it is reported that control of land contamination was not effective enough since many polluter doesn’t report and to comply with this regulation. It is has happened because of overlapping jurisdiction between JTC and NEA in the industrial area. 
There are several Environmental Pollution Control Regulations or Subsidiary Laws that support this act under Chapter 94a, Section 77 (1), which control Air Impurities, Boundary Noise Limits for Factory Premises, Noise at Construction Sites, Hazardous Substances, Ozone Depleting Substances, Prohibition on The Use of Open Fires Order, Trade Effluent, and Fees for Licences. Two other regulations that also support EPCA are Toxic Industrial Waste (under Chapter 95, Section 113), and Vehicular Emissions (under Chapter 94a, Sections 12 (5) And 77 (1))
Conservation of Species and Ecosystems
Even though the conservation area in Singapore is only 5% , but still the Nature Conservations Laws in Singapore hold the important part to preserve the species and ecosystem richness in the island. Several laws that regulate this aspect are:
- Wild Animals and Birds Act (WABA) (Chapter 351)
- Endangered Species (Import and Export) Act (Chapter 92a)
- National Parks Board Act (Chapter 198a)
- Parks and Trees Act 2005 (No. 4 of 2005)
- Control of Plants Act (Chapter 57a )
- State Lands Encroachments Act (Chapter 315)
Two regulations that further presented in this paper are the Wild Animals and Birds Act, and Endangered Species (Import and Export) Act.
Wild Animals and Birds Act (WABA)(Chapter 351)
Wild Animals and Bird Acts actually prevent killing, taking or keeping any wild animal or bird, other than specified in the Schedule 1, shall be guilty of an offence. The offender can get a maximum fine of $1,000 and the forfeiture of the wild animal or bird. This is an excellent tool to prevent the offences.
The problem is that the birds under Schedule 1, which are Feral pigeon, Purple-backed starling, Philippine glossy starling, Common myna and White-vented myna, are actually receive no protection since they look like to House Crow. These birds actually are facing extinctions since excessive shooting.
Endangered Species (Import and Export) Act (Chapter 92a)
Actually this Act is made to implement the ratification of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) which control import, and export certain animals and plants and parts of such animals and plants.
In Section 4 of this Act it is said that, ”(1) No person shall import, export, re-export …any scheduled species without a permit. (2) No person shall have in his possession, under his control, sell, offer or expose for sale, or display to the public any scheduled species which has been imported or introduced from the sea in contravention of subsection (1). (3) Any person who contravenes …shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $5,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 12 months or to both …. “
This section shows the strict control. Nevertheless the regarding the amount of fine actually still it is not sufficient since the decision of the fine amount is made based on number of species that imported or exported and not on the number of individuals. In some cases it is not satisfactory since the price of the animals or the products are far higher above the fine.
This act actually is enforced by The Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA) under the Ministry of Development, which issue a permit, licence, certificate or written permission to import, export, re-export. Nevertheless in this act does not regulate the transit of the endangered animal, plant and any their products. So actually the weakness is that AVA can not catch the endangered species delivery that transit in Singapore Port, and this act actually requires improvement.
Firstly, The Environmental Law is very important in sustaining the World and mitigating the environmental destructions. International Hard and Soft Laws are also crucial to be followed to guarantee this.
Secondly, implementation of sustainability laws in Singapore is actually excellent in land use planning and development control, pollution prevention, control of hazardous substances and waste disposal. This can be seen on the excellent space quality, and cleanliness of the city.
Thirdly, Singapore has applied the precautionary principle and the use of best technology related to the pollution control in EPCA and energy in NEA Act. In some major government projects such as Semakau Landfill, the environmental auditing also has been conducted periodically. Further the detection of infringements especially in land contamination is not effectively done since the overlapping of jurisdiction.
Fourthly, the Government tries to implement environmental law that does not discourage investors to invest, for example by not providing Mandatory Environmental Impact Assessment Law. This is an indication of more investor-friendly environment law that also can jeopardise the environmental condition of Singapore.
In conclusion actually Singapore needs to pass more stringent and participative law especially in sustainable use of renewable resources and non-wasteful use of non-renewable resources law; nature conservation law; and mandatory EIA law.
Lastly, in my opinion the Environmental Law in Singapore actually can be improved through participation of all stakeholders and the raise of awareness in government, private and the society and eventually the improvement will be achieved.
 UNEP Environmental Law Training Manual, Chapter 11, Environmental Law at the National Level, pp 243 – 244
 Lee Kuan Yew, From Thirld Word to First, The Singapore Story 1965-2000, Singapore and the Economic Boom, Harper Collins Publishers, Chapter 13, Greening Singapore
 adapted from http://law.nus.edu.sg/apcel/dbase/singapore/reports.html#Top and updated from other sources
 Lye L.H.,”Singapore ’s New Environmental Pollution Control Law: The Environmental Pollution Control Act, 1999,” SJLS July 2000, 1-32
 Da Silva S. ” Local and Regional Environmental Case Laws,” MEM Seminar October 7, 2005
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