Beranda > Desain Arsitektur - Architecture Design, Lingkungan - Environmental, Tata Ruang - Spatial Planning > SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE: HOW GREEN IS THE “GREEN DEVELOPMENT” IN INDONESIA

SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE: HOW GREEN IS THE “GREEN DEVELOPMENT” IN INDONESIA

Written by:

1 Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan

1 MSc. Environmental Management (NUS), S.T. (ITB)

Urban Planner & Researcher

Green Impact Indonesia

Integrated Urban, Drainage and Environmental Planning and Design

Email: gunteitb@yahoo.com

https://greenimpactindo.wordpress.com/about/

For Jakarta Post Article

Green Development has become well known worldwide due to the Global Climate Change and increase of environmental awareness. Further, it has become the main concern of present construction industry because approximately 50% of the Green House Gases were contributed by the construction industry and its related activities. i The “Green Developments” were emerging in Jakarta. This was caused by the response of its residences who didn’t like to be trapped in traffic jams, heavy air pollutions, floods, thermal discomfort, etc which were common in Jakarta. Although, we agreed that some Greening Strategies, such as planting trees, implementing green roofs, energy and water saving, had been adopted by developer, some other strategies were failed to be implemented. Even some unsustainable strategies were found. This actually shows that the green development was more utilised by the developers to attract the “More Environmentally Friendly Customers,” rather than protecting the environment with the “The True Green Development.”

The Theory

The Green Development actually must be guided by set of standard following the Sustainable by Design Strategy. According to UIA (International Union of Architect), the Green Development must follow holistic and integrated planning and design process from the city to the building. And if conducted, this action would eventually reduce 50% to 80% of the greenhouse gas emissions and overall environmental impact.ii

Figure 1. “Integrated Green Development Approach” According to UIA

UIA also prescribed the Sustainable by Design (SbD) Strategies to be implemented in Green Development such as (direct quotation):

  • Sustainable by Design begins with the earliest stages of a project and requires commitments between all the stakeholders: clients, designers, engineers, authorities, contractors, owners, users and the community.
  • Sustainable by Design incorporates all aspects of construction AND future use based on full Life Cycle Analysis and Management.
  • Sustainable by Design optimises efficiency through design. Renewable energies, high performance and environmentally benign technologies are integrated to the greatest practical extent in the project conception.
  • Sustainable by Design recognises that all architecture and planning projects are part of a complex interactive system, linked to their wider natural surroundings, and reflect the heritage, culture, and social values of the daily life of the community.
  • Sustainable by Design seeks healthy materials for healthy buildings, ecologically and socially respectful land-use, and an aesthetic sensitivity that inspires, affirms and ennobles.
  • Sustainable by Design aims to significantly reduce carbon imprints, hazardous materials and technologies and all other adverse human effects of the built environment on the natural environment.
  • Sustainable by Design endeavours to improve the quality of life, promote equity both locally and globally, advance economic well-being and provide opportunities for community engagement and empowerment.
  • Sustainable by Design recognises the local and planetary interdependence of all people. It acknowledges that urban populations depend on an integrated, interdependent, and sustainable rural-urban system for their life support systems (clean water and air, food, shelter, work, education, health, cultural opportunity, and the like).
  • Sustainable by Design endorses UNESCO’s statement that cultural diversity, as a source of exchange, innovation and creativity, is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature. iii

Further, several Green Development Guidelines exist universally. Understanding that these guidelines still need adjustment to the Indonesian local condition, we would like to explain further 5 guidelines that could be used for implementing Sustainable by Design in the real world, such as: iv

  • “Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED),” from USA dan Worldwide (LEED for Homes was going to be used for measuring the study case)

  • “Green Mark,” from Singapore

  • “Green Neighbourhoods Planning and Design Guidelines,” from Center for Housing Innovation, University of Oregon, USA

  • “High Performance Building Guidelines,” from City of New York, Department of Design & Construction, USA

  • “The Land Code, Guidelines for Environmentally Sustainable Land Development,” from Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, Yale University, USA

Further, these guidelines have almost similar requirements in their contents. This shows that the similar environmental concerns among the Building Practitioners and environmental friendly approaches adopted. Further, they could be described in the following table:

Aspect

LEED (for Homes)

Green Mark

Green Neighbourhood Planning and Design Guidelines

High Performance Building

Land Code

Design Process

Innovation and Design Process

Described in the Aspect Described in the Aspect

City Process and Design Process

Approaches to Green Development
Construction Process Construction Administration
Commisioning Commisioning
Operation and Maintenance Operation and Maintenance

Legal

Described in the City Process Legal Strategies for Municipalities and Developers

Location

Location and Linkages

Site

Sustainable Sites

Site and Project Management

Environmental Assets, Urban Forests, Air Pollution, Vegetation

Site Design and Planning

Air Pollution and Micro-meteorology, Plant Ecology and Population, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Ecology

Water

Water Efficiency

Water Efficiency

Natural Drainage, Impervious Surfaces,

Water Management

Water Quality and Hydrology

Building Material

Materials and Resources

Material and Product Selection

Thermal Comfort

Indoor Environmental Quality

Indoor Environ-mental Quality & Environmental Protection

Indoor Environment

People Awareness

Awareness & Education

Energy

Energy & Atmosphere

Energy Efficiency

Building Energy Use

On Site Energy and Transportation

Other Innovations

Innovations

For easier comparison, we would like to use Sustainable by Design and LEED for Homes as the benchmark for evaluating the Green Development in Indonesia.

The Real Practice versus the Theory

In the real practice, many Green Developments seem has not applied the Sustainable by Design approach. For example, the planning process normally was executed excluding stakeholders due to conflict of interest in land ownership or other issues. Although LEED only mentioned 3 stages to be conducted with multidisciplinary approach, but ideally the involvement of all stakeholders should be performed in every possible steps. v

Further, Sustainable by Design actually should incorporate all construction aspects and consider the full Life Cycle Analysis and Management. But in the real practice, we did not see that the sustainable materials were not evaluated. Sometimes less environmental friendly construction methods were selected for lower cost of construction. And this is also against the LEED standard.

Because energy crisis, introduction of energy efficiency design were introduced. But the renewable energies, high performance and environmentally technologies were usually selected without considering alternatives cost-effective methods. And this actually caused excessive price increase of Green Property. For example, expensive green roof and photo-voltaic panel were implemented, while simple retention tank was not adopted.

Lastly, the Sustainable by Design should recognise the complex interactive system, between built environment and the natural environment, and social environment. But in the practice normally, the important ecological marshes and water bodies were considered as the main land supply for profitable properties. And many of these areas were converted as the prime Green properties in Jakarta causing the surrounding urban low-lands flooded. This strategy was actually against the Sustainable by Design, LEED as well as Regulation of Spatial Planning and Water Management in Indonesia.

This is actually shows the less sustainable approach in the current “Green Development in Indonesia”. On the other hand, the extraordinary price tags were normally put in these Green Developments. We believe that this phenomenon was originally started by LEED application in USA. We actually understand that better infrastructure in LEED Home needs more expensive investment. Unfortunately, the improper land preparation and insufficient infrastructures existed in the Green Development in Indonesia.

Furthermore, sustainable materials like Certified Woods from Sustainable Forestry also were not widely used in Indonesia. So the practice of illegal logging and rainforest fires would not be stopped with the current “Green Development.” For the record in 1998, it was reported that forty percent of the forests, which was reported in 1950, had been cleared (from 162 million ha forest, only 98 million ha forest left). And 1,708,750 to 1,871,500 ha of forests were deforested annually.vi This is also the failure of “Green Development in Indonesia.”

The Pluit Village Case: Unsustainable Green Commercial by Lippo Karawaci

The Pluit Village was located within the Pluit Residential area in North of Jakarta. The Pluit area was developed in 1970 by Regional Government Company named Management Board of Pluit Area (Badan Pengelola Lingkungan Pluit). The company was later restructured and renamed as PT. Pembangunan Pluit Jaya. And in 1995, PT. Pembangunan Pluit Jaya, cooperating with private entities, PT. Duta Wisata Loka (DWL) (1995) converted green and blue open spaces within the area to commercial space, such as Megamall Pluit. Later on other spaces were converted to commercial like: Pluit Junction and Greenbay Pluit Apartment. vii

Jakarta Province Government allowed and legalised this. Later on PT Pembangunan Pluit Jaya was renamed again as PT. Jakarta Propertindo. While PT. Duta Wisata Loka was later restructured and bought by Lippo, a renowned “Green Developer” in South-East Asia. And the Mega Mall was renovated expanding into the Pluit Lake. The project was renamed as Pluit Village. viii

In the mean time, the Pluit Polder was not fully developed as integrated polder system by the developer. And due to that, the area was inundated heavily for 3 weeks in 2002. This disaster brought awareness of the communities on the importance of integrated flood protection system. And The Community Forum of Pluit Environment Care (or named as Forum Masyarakat Peduli Lingkungan Pluit/ FMPLP in Indonesian language) was formed later on. For easier description, we mentioned it as Pluit Forum.

The Pluit Forum was formed by the Residents of Pluit area which represented by Homeowner Group (Rukun Tetangga/ RT), Homeowner Association (Rukun Warga/ RW) and Pluit Administration Head (Lurah Kelurahan Pluit). The purpose of this organisation was to coordinate the simultaneous effort to protect the Pluit area with holistic approach. And with the proper general planning, construction, operation and maintenance of the polder, Pluit area was freed from flooding in 2007, when other areas in Jakarta Metro flooded.

Unfortunately due to Lippo’s Pluit Village development, the Polder Pluit operation faces crisis because of reduction of Pluit Lake retention capacity, diversion inflow from North Compartment to 3-m width long-storage, major landscape change in Pluit Village. These actually showed unsustainable approach of the developer.

Further, all these have caused the change of drainage pattern and local inundations in the residential area of Pluit. The Pluit Forum has tried solving this with the developer since 2008. But the effort seems to be useless because Lippo did not want to continue the discussion and was reported buying and constructing 14 additional expensive pumps without proper drainage design and detail engineering design, jeopardising the existing polder dikes.

The impact of the environmental destruction by Lippo was worsened by the climate change in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Tidal wave caused sea dikes failures and inundating the area in a short time. In 2008, the highest astronomical tide actually surpassed the dike level of Pluit Reservoir. These phenomena actually show the unsustainable approach of Lippo.ix

On the other hand, PT Lippo Karawaci Tbk (“Lippo Karawaci”) admitted that it was founded on a vision to impact lives through the development of well-planned sustainable independent townships with green environments and first class physical and social infrastructure. And it has expanded its business comprising urban development, large scale integrated development, retail malls, healthcare, hotel and leisure, etc. x It was very contradicting to the reality with Pluit Village.

So, it could be concluded that the developer were predicted using “Fake Green Development” more as profit taking strategy rather than environmental protection strategy. And it is very dangerous because in the international level, the developer could gain “Green Development Award” such as FIABCI with the unsustainable practices.

The Suggestion

This actually shows that “The Current Green Development in Indonesia” is not really Green yet. And real action would be needed in implementing the True Green Development. This could be started with the Integrated Planning with Ecological Approach that could be defined as: “Planning process which consider the ecological condition (biodiversity), environmental capacity, and social – economic context that influence the site. Further, in the planning process, integration of infrastructure planning such as water resource management, etc must be evaluated and implemented. Lastly, but not least the stakeholders’ participation must be facilitated in all decision making process.” And this concept could be described in the following figure. xi

Figure 2. The Integrated Spatial Planning with Ecological Approach. xii

We also see that land suitability evaluation need to incorporated in the process top mitigate the destruction of important ecological areas, reduction of infrastructure investments as well as reduction of social-economical negative impacts from the future land development. This approach was similar to Site Selection in LEED. On the other hand, developers normally abandon this step and cause the customer to suffer. For example, the North Jakarta was facing 1-15 cm land subsidence. In 10 years the ground actually would submerge 10 cm to 1.5 m. This eventually would increase the area vulnerability to flooding and diminish the property values. xiii This has highlighted the important of land suitability evaluation before the development.

Figure 3. ALiT’s (Adaptive Land Suitability Evaluation Tool) Methodology. xiv

Later on, LEED or other Green Building Standard must be really adopted and incorporated in the holistic planning-design approach of the projects. xv The aspects are as followed:

1. Innovation and Design Process (ID)

  • Integrated Project Planning;

  • Durability Management Process;

  • Innovative or Regional Design.

2. Location and Linkages (LL)

  • LEED for Neighbourhood Development/ LEED ND; or

  • Site Selection;

  • Preferred Locations;

  • Infrastructure;

  • Community Resources;

  • Access to Open Space.

3. Sustainable Sites (SS)

  • Site Stewardship;

  • Landscaping;

  • Local Heat Island Effects;

  • Surface Water Management;

  • Nontoxic Pest Control;

  • Compact Development.

4. Water Efficiency (WE)

  • Water Reuse;

  • Irrigation Systems;

  • Indoor Water Use.

5. Energy and Atmosphere (EA)

  • Optimize Energy Performance;

  • Insulation;

  • Air Infiltration;

  • Windows;

  • Heating and Cooling Distribution System;

  • Space Heating and Cooling Equipment;

  • Water Heating;

  • Lighting;

  • Appliances;

  • Renewable Energy;

  • Residential Refrigerant Management.

6. Materials and Resources (MR)

  • Material-Efficient Framing;

  • Environmentally Preferable Products;

  • Waste Management.

7. Indoor Environmental Quality (EQ)

  • ENERGY STAR with Indoor Air Package;

  • Combustion Venting;

  • Moisture Control;

  • Outdoor Air Ventilation;

  • Local Exhaust;

  • Distribution of Space Heating and Cooling;

  • Air Filtering;

  • Contaminant Control;

  • Radon Protection;

  • Garage Pollutant Protection.

8. Awareness & Education (AE)

  • Education of Homeowner or Tenant;

  • Education of Building Manager.

Although, we understand that some of the LEED aspect are irrelevant to Indonesia, we need to emphasize that the Green Development needs to follow minimum credit of settled by US Green Building Council, and Green Building Council Indonesia. And this should be publicized to the public to ensure that the Consumers are not deceived by the Developers.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that Green Development in Indonesia needs to be integrated with the Spatial Planning and Ecological Conservation effort. This is important due to the important tropical ecological areas in Indonesia that are also valuable to the world.

Further, the Green Developments also must be holistically planned and designed following the Green Building Standard but with adaptation to the Indonesia Socio-Economic Conditions. And the Green Development Status should not cause excessive increase the price of the Green Property. More Low Cost, Low and Local Technology as well as Low Negative Impact Development must be selected and utilized.

Lastly, all stakeholders such as: clients, designers, engineers, authorities, contractors, owners, users and the community must be involved as much as possible in the planning – design as well as operation and maintenance process. The awareness of the important environmental protection and management should be disseminated among the stakeholders to ensure the “the Successful True Green Development.”

The Writer’s Description

Gunawan Tanuwidjaja was graduated as MSc Environmental Management from National University of Singapore, and as Bachelor of Architecture (ST) from Bandung Institute of Technology (Institut Teknologi Bandung). He has practiced as professional urban planner, architect and researcher in Indonesia and Singapore since 2001. He is currently managing Green Impact Indonesia, an Integrated Urban, Drainage and Environmental – Planning & Design Studio. His research interests are in Sustainable Urban Development, Eco-City, Integrated Ecological Planning and Sustainable Architecture. His email is gunteitb@yahoo.com, while his researches are accessible in https://greenimpactindo.wordpress.com/.

i http://www.uia-architectes.org/image/PDF/COP15/COP15_Declaration_EN.pdf

ii Ibid.

iii Ibid.

iv http://www.usgbc.org/

http://greenhomeguide.com/askapro/topic/12

http://www.bca.gov.sg/GreenMark/green_mark_buildings.html

http://www.nyc.gov/html/ddc/html/design/sustainable_home.shtml

http://environment.yale.edu/topics/ecology_ecosystems_and_biodiversity/962

http://as.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470049847,descCd-authorInfo.html

http://www.sdnpbd.org/sdi/international_days/wed/2005/document/green%20neighborhoods%20-%20planning%20and%20design%20guidelines.pdf

v Indonesian Ministries of Public Works and the Netherlands Ministries of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, and of Spatial Planning, Housing and Environment, Partners for Water, Rijkswaterstaat, and UNESCO-IHE (2009), Guidelines on Urban Polder Development, retrieved from: http://www.pusair-pu.go.id/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=41

Community Forum of Pluit Environment Care (Forum Masyarakat Peduli Lingkungan Pluit/ FMPLP) Presentation and Documentation.

vi World Resources Institute, Forest Watch Indonesia, Global Forest Watch (2002) , State of the Forest Indonesia.

World Resources Institute, Forest Frontiers Initiative, WWF-Indonesia & Telapak Indonesia Foundation (2000), Trial by Fire, Forest Fires and Forestry Policy in Indonesia’s Era of Crisis and Reform. retrieved from: http://www.globalforestwatch.org/english/indonesia/index.htm;

FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005, retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/forestry/fra/en/;

http://www.indonesianforest.com/;

http://www.profauna.or.id/ indo/Fakta_satwa.html;

vii Op.cit 5.

viii Op.cit 5.

ix http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2008/05/08/03493012/rob.datang.lagi.besok.di.kawasan.pluit

x http://www.lippokarawaci.co.id/aboutlippokarawaci/index.aspx

xi Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan, and Malone, Lee-Lai-Choo. (2009) Applying Integrated Ecological Planning and Adaptive Landscape Evaluation Tool for Developing Countries in the Framework of Sustainable Spatial Planning and Development, Study Case Bintan Island, Indonesia, Positioning Planning in the Global Crises International Seminar, Planning Department, School of Architecture Planning and Policy Development, Bandung Institute of Technology.

xii Ibid.

xiii http://www.fig.net/pub/vietnam/papers/ts06f/ts06f_abidin_etal_3491.pdf

xiv Op.cit 11.

xv http://greenhomeguide.com/askapro/topic/12

Download Link PDF:

http://www.scribd.com/doc/30962363/20100506-For-Jakarta-Post-Sustainable-Architecture-How-Green-is-the-Green-Development-in-Indonesia

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