Sustainable Architectural Design Strategy for Revitalising The Heritage Area: Jalan Panggung, Surabaya, Indonesia
Architect of SETARA Architecture Consultant
Goya Tamara Kolondam
Architect of SETARA Architecture Consultant
Lecturer of Petra Christian University, Surabaya, Indonesia
& Manager of Green Impact Indonesia,
Integrated Urban Planning, Drainage Planning Architectural Design and Environmental Consultant
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Surabaya, the second – largest city of Indonesia possessed great historical treasures of Islamic period, colonial period and the Indonesian Independence period. Jalan Panggung, as one of heritage areas gazetted in Surabaya Municipal Spatial Plan of 2010-2030, was potentially developed as tourism and commercial areas.
The architectural of Jalan Panggung’s shop-houses was found charming by the foreign tourists. Furthermore, the existing shop-houses were still utilised for retails and services etc. And lastly, the area were surrounded several historical landmarks and buildings such as: Red Bridge (Jembatan Merah), Arabic Quarter (Kampung Ampel), Chinatown (Kembang Jepun), Internationale Credit en Handelvereeneging Rotterdam, PT. Asuransi Jiwa Sraya Building (Fa Frozer Eaton & Co), PTP XXI & XII Building (Koloniale Bank), etc. Therefore, the area was found as promising to be revitalised.
In the Surabaya Vision Plan 2025, the area was designated as Conservation Area and Art District. The research was conducted to measure the SWOT of the areas to support the idea. Further, architectural design and artistic collaboration were suggested to conserve the areas while allowing some creative uses and generating local economy.
The Sustainable Architectural Design strategy was prepared local community of Jalan Panggung, in collaboration with Surabaya Municipality, Private Sectors and other stakeholders to develop this concept in the sustainable manner. The miss-design could be mitigated if Participative and Creative Redevelopment (Design) approach was adopted by the Developer and Surabaya Municipality.
Keywords: Sustainable Architectural Design Strategy, Participatory and Creative Redevelopment
Surabaya, the second – largest city of Indonesia and populated with over of 2.8 million residents. The city was not only recognised as the thriving port city but also as the historical city. The City meant a great deal to the Indonesian from the Islamic period, colonial period to the Indonesian Independence period. The Surabaya name was derived by legend of battle of the Shark (the Sura) and the Crocodile (the Baya) according the Jayabaya story. The story symbolised the fight between Raden Widjaja, the King of Majapahit, and Tartar soldier in 31st May of 1293. And the date was later designated later as the anniversary date of Surabaya City (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surabaya).
Beside that, the Name of Surabaya symbolised the great fight between the Indonesian and the Dutch and English troops in 1945. The fight was started by incident of British Brigadier Mallaby shooting in 30th October of 1945 near the Red Bridge [Jembatan Merah]. The ultimatum of the Allies later caused the brave fight and death of thousands Indonesian. The event was later commemorated as the National Heroes Day [Hari Pahlawan] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surabaya).
Historical Background of Surabaya
Handinoto (1996) described Surabaya (Churabaya) as a small village developed in the riverfront of Brantas River in the Trowulan Epigraphy 1358 AD. The village was an important part of Brantas River crossing. Surabaya was later under Demak Kingdom (1483 – 1542 AD), Madura Kingdom (1542 – 1570 AD), and the Pajang Kingdom (1570 – 1587 AD). The Dutch Sailors later visited the village in 1596.
In 1612 AD, Surabaya was a thriving spices’ trading port. The trading was done secretly by the Portuguese, the Surabaya natives and the Banda people although prohibit by VOC (Dutch Trading Commission). In 1625 AD, The Surabaya was under the Mataram’s control but in 1667 AD, Surabaya Trunojoyo, a Maduranese Prince took over the city and transformed it into a thriving port utilising Kalimas River. Further, the Cornelis Speelman, VOC, succeeded taking over the city and returning it to Mataram in 1677 AD (Handinoto, 1996).
In 1706 AD, Surabaya witnessed severe struggle of Govert Knol and Untung Surapati for control of the City. After relentless dispute, The Paku Buwono II of Mataram Monarchy signed treaty with Governor General Van Imhoff surrendering the North Java Areas and Madura (including Surabaya Port City) in 1743 AD. The new Government structure was set up and a Gezaghebber in den Oostthoek (The Master of East Java Region) was designated (Handinoto, 1996).
After VOC bankruptcy, the Surabaya was controlled by Dutch Governor General Herman Willem Daendels and developed as the Little Europe serving as the trading port city and defensive city. In 1811-1816 AD, the city was developed further under Thomas Stamford Rafless. And lastly the city was handed over to the Dutch and further developed to the South (Handinoto, 1996).
The City was recorded as a thriving Port City of the Eastern Part of Indonesian since 1612 AD. The Kalimas as well as the Sea has created a strategic position of the city. The Port city was found very strategic for the regional trading as well as international trading. Because of the 700-years-historical background, the Surabaya historical areas were found essential for preservation.
The Research was conducted with Strategic and Historical Analysis. The data was collected from several sources including Surabaya Vision Plan of 2005-2025 and Surabaya Spatial Plan Regulation of 2010-2030(Surabaya Municipality, 2005 and Surabaya Municipality, 2010).
And Jalan Panggung was later visually researched to verify the conservation potential and threats from the secondary data. This stage was later followed by preparation of Re-design Proposal for the Jalan Panggung. The Proposal was prepared to convince the Surabaya Municipality, Surabaya Heritage Communities, Universities, and Local Communities on the importance of the Sustainable Redesign of the place. The Sustainable Redesign strategy proposal adopted several concepts of Singapore and Jakarta.
Further, the research would be continued with Participative Design, Participative Construction, Economic Development of Existing Business and Generating Public Spaces for New Activities including Art Activities. These stages were not finished yet during the writing process.
Figure 1. Research Methodology
Jalan Panggung as a Historical Area in Surabaya
Jalan Panggung is a heritage area gazetted in Surabaya Vision Plan of 2005-2025 and Surabaya Spatial Plan Regulation of 2010-2030. And the area was potentially developed as tourism and commercial areas (Surabaya Municipality, 2005 and Surabaya Municipality, 2010).
The architectural of Jalan Panggung’s shop houses was found charming by the foreign tourists. Furthermore, the existing shop houses were still utilised for retails and services etc. And lastly, the area was surrounded several historical landmarks and buildings such as: Red Bridge Area (Kawasan Jembatan Merah), Surabaya Arabic Quarter (Kampung Ampel), Surabaya Chinatown (Kembang Jepun). Therefore, the area was found as promising to be revitalised.
The Red Bridge Area [Jembatan Merah Area], Surabaya Arabic Quarter [Kampung Ampel], and Surabaya Chinatown [Kembang Jepun Area] were originally designated in 1843 by the Dutch under the Wijkenstelsel Regulation. The Red Bridge Area was nominated for the European quarters while the Surabaya Arabic Quarter and Chinatown were designated for Arab and Chinese communities. And Jalan Panggung was found as the pathway connecting the three historical conservation areas. (Poerbantanoe, B., 2001, http://dolansuroboyo.wordpress.com/2007/09/10/mlaku-mlaku-surabaya-lawas/).
The Red Bridge Area was designated as the Government Offices Centre since 1811. The Resident Office, Custom Clearance and Police Office were facilitated in the building. Later in 1905, Jalan Jembatan Merah and Jalan Rajawali were developed for economic trading catering the European exclusive traders. (Handinoto, 1996 and Kompas, 06th of Januari 2003)
The Red Bridge area was characterised with European Classical Architecture and De Stijl facing Kalimas River. The historical landmarks of the area were the Ex Internationale Credit en Handelvereeneging Rotterdam, Bank Jatim Building (Ex Javasche Bank), Bank International Indonesia (Ex Nutsparbank), PT. Asuransi Jiwa Sraya Building (Ex Fa Frozer Eaton & Co), PTP XXI & XII (Ex Koloniale Bank), PTP (Ex Handeslvereeniging Amsterdam). Some of the buildings were designed by FJL Ghijsels, Nedam and CPW Schoemaker. And this highlighted the conservation value of the area (Poerbantanoe, B., 2001, http://dolansuroboyo.wordpress.com/2007/09/10/mlaku-mlaku-surabaya-lawas/).
Figure 2. The Map of Jalan Panggung and Adjacent Area
Source: (Periplus, 2005, Surabaya Street Atlas).
Figure 3 and Figure 4. The Red Bridge Area
Source: (www.sawoong.com and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surabaya)
The Sunan Ampel Mosque and Resting Place were found as the centre of the Arabic Quarter (Kampung Ampel). Historically, the Mosque was built by Sunan Ampel or Raden Rahmat from Cambodia in 1400 AD. He was one of the Wali Songo (9 Sunan / 9 Saints) that introduced the Islam religion in Java. And Sunan Ampel introduced it with acculturation between Islam and the local Javanese culture. So the rituals were still accommodated in every activity in Kampung Ampel. The cultural activities mostly took place one week before the Ied Celebration Day. The Hadrah Procession, Shalawat Singing, Gamis Tunic and Zapin Dance were performed in the Ampel Market. This created unique Islamic culture of Ampel (Notes of SAWOONG, 2011).
During Ramadhan Month, The Mosque and The Resting Place were visited by lots of tourists from Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei even Middle East. The area came to life because of these activities. These tourists were looking for new religious experience from Kampung Ampel. Beside of the visit, culinary activities with Arabic delicacies and shopping were popular. The Arabic-related shopping commodities were available in the area such as: Islamic clothing, textiles, dates, perfumes. (Notes of SAWOONG, 2011). Therefore, Jalan Panggung could be developed accommodating the tourists’ needs from Kampung Ampel.
Figure 5 and Figure 6. Surabaya Arabic Quarter
Source: (www.sawoong.com and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surabaya)
Kembang Jepun or Surabaya Chinatown was dominated with shophouses activities. Widodo mentioned that the Chinesevorstraat (Jalan Karet) and Handelstraat (Kembang Jepun) was already developed since 1411. The Kembang Jepun further was developed as wholesaler shops and settlements (Widodo, D., I., 2002 and Kompas, 06th of Januari 2003).
Beside the negative image, the Kembang Jepun area was still found to be strategic because of hotel and motel development facilitating the businessmen. The businessmen were normally had to appear before the Resident of Surabaya to get business permit. In 1910 the area was abandoned because of the development of Tanjung Perak Port (Handinoto, 1996 and Kompas, 06th of Januari 2003).
In the current years, the Kembang Jepun was not in a good condition because of daily operation of machinery shops, groceries or offices abandoning the architectural quality of the area. The revitalisation plan was executed by the Surabaya Municipality introducing 140 street food hawkers. The food hawkers were facilitated to open until late night. These informal traders were originally living nearby the Kembang Jepun such as Sombo Apartment and Kampung nearby. Therefore, theoretically the activity could generate local economic activity. Unfortunately, this idea was not sustainable because of lack of infrastructure and promotion (Kompas, 06th of Januari 2003). The case study emphasised the re-evaluation need of the Jalan Panggung Strategy in the Vision Plan.
Figure 7 and Figure 8. Jalan Panggung Shophouses
Source: (http://dewey.petra.ac.id/jiunkpe_dg_94.html and private collection).
The Jalan Panggung was dominated with Chinese Shop houses and facing away the Kalimas River. But because of the social acculturation between Arab and Chinese, the area were used together by the Chinese and Arabic Community for Al’Quran, gift shops, book stores, offices, perfumes and traditional food. The activities as well as the pristine condition of the shop houses actually attracted the European Tourists to visit and enjoy the atmosphere. Hotel Kemadjoean that was built in 1928 was found as a potential landmark for promoting sustainable tourist activity.
Jalan Panggung Conservation Strategy in Surabaya Vision Plan 2025
The community workshops of the Surabaya Vision Plan 2005-2025 had produced several feedback and inputs as well as implementation strategies. The Workshop was conducted discussing Culture and Tourism (Surabaya Municipality, 2005).
The rich culture and history of the City was identified but not well facilitated as well as developed sustainably. Many potential tourism concepts and locations were later discussed including religious, business and waterfront tourism (Surabaya Municipality, 2005).
The hindrance of developing Sustainable Tourism was the lack of promotion and infrastructure provisions. Further, the Kalimas waterfronts were identified as potential area for Historical and Religious Tourism, including Jalan Panggung. The development of the area was to be supported with pedestrian infrastructure. Additionally, promotion strategy needed to attract International Tourists as well as Local Tourists (Surabaya Municipality, 2005).
Kalimas River Redevelopment was found important in the longer term. The redevelopment would suggest the tourism activity nodes, as well as green parks with pedestrian friendly bridges, promenades and pathways. The Historic and Civic District in Red Bridge Area would be developed for restaurants, retail outlets, cultural facilities and hotels. This would further create a vibrant and safe environment (Surabaya Municipality, 2005).
Red Bridge (Jembatan Merah) Heritage Riverfront would be improved with revitalisation of historical areas; introduction of cultural facilities and activities (Museum, Galleries as well as Historical Tour); and promotion of historical value of Red Bridge (Surabaya Municipality, 2005).
The North Kalimas was suggested for rezoning as Small Office Home Office for Creative Industry (Design, Music, Art and Creative Industry) and Service Industry. The area were proposed to be oriented facing the waterfront. The Kalisosok Prison was proposed to be converted as Cultural Facilities and the Kembang Jepun area revitalization. The Vision Plan 2025 also suggested to improve accessibility of the area especially for pedestrian, to reroute traffic from the riverfront, to improve the infrastructure, to reuse historical building for entertainment purposes, to improve landscape of the area (Surabaya Municipality, 2005).
Figure 9. Jalan Panggung in Tourism Strategy in Surabaya
Source: (Surabaya Municipality, 2005, Surabaya Vision Plan).
Conservation Challenges in Surabaya
Since the Vision Plan was gazetted in 2005, the Conservation Strategy seemed difficult to be implemented due to several reasons. Poor perception of the Surabaya people and investors to the Heritage Area prohibited the plan to be implemented. Kalisosok Prison created negative image of the area. Secondly, the heavy traffic jam reduced the visitability of the area. Thirdly, the development of new exclusive housing and commercial in the suburban area reduced the competitiveness of the Heritage area. This was clearly in the Figures below.
Figure 10. Development of New Housing
Figure 11. Commercial Competition between Heritage Area and New Commercial Centres
The weak law enforcement of the Surabaya Government also hindered the implementation. The Conservation regulation often was not followed by investors. Many buildings in the conservation areas were built discarding the heritage characteristic of the area. It was stated by Ir. Is Purwono (Kompas, 20th February 2003).
Sustainable Architectural Design Strategy for Jalan Panggung
The Art District proposal in Vision Plan 2025 for Jalan Panggung was found to be difficult to implement because of different nature of the local business (fish markets, groceries, services and religious). On the other hand, the integrated commercial and public space redevelopment concept was found suitable. The concept was taken from Singapore, Bugis Junction. The redevelopment successfully transformed the area to become a Commercial and Art District (http://www.ura.gov.sg/rediscoverSpore2/pdf/Bras%20Basah%20Bugis.pdf).
The concept was to create a vibrant place for everyone to enjoy the public spaces creatively. The main activities were public discussion and marketing. The two activities were found in the Pabean Cantikan Market in the area. The Market was proposed to be extended in the Jalan Panggung with redevelopment concept as described in the following Figure 12 to 19. The redevelopment would convert the road into pedestrian market with careful conservation. And the careful conservation would be executed with careful renovation. Fish stall, groceries stall, handicraft stall as well as souvenir shops (Islamic clothing, textiles, dates, perfumes) could be proposed in the shopping street. Further, public place for cultural exchange and discussion would be facilitated in the area. Lastly, public green spaces would be proposed in the Pabean Cantikan Market to improve the livability of the market.
Besides that, cultural or art festival would be proposed following of JakArt Festival model in Kalibesar District Jakarta in 2003. The JakArt Architecture Program renovated 4 two-hundred-years-old Historical Buildings in Kali Besar Barat and Kali Besar Timur. They were Bank Bumi Daya Office, Standard Chartered Bank Office and Bank Mandiri Office. And they were converted as Office and Art Venues (http://www.jakart.info/index.htm and Kompas, 23rd June of 2003).
The arts activities proposed in Jalan Panggung would consist of Islamic Art (during the Ramadhan Month) and Chinese Art (during the Chinese New Year or Chinese Festival). The Jalan Panggung Art Festival eventually would enhance the cultural acculturation and improve the tourism of the area.
Lastly other strategy were also needed such as improving the infrastructure and safety, changing perception of historical areas in the public seminar, promoting public transportation to Jalan Panggung from other residential area and tax incentives for Conservation Building proper reuse.
Figure 12. Existing Transportation Pattern
Figure 13. Proposed Transportation Pattern
Figure 14. Existing Land Use
Figure 15. Proposed Land Use
Figure 16. Existing Use
Figure 17. Example of Proposed Use
Figure 18 and Figure 19. Conservation and Art Activities promoted similar to Jalan Panggung
The City was recorded as a thriving Port City with the 700-years-historical background and was found essential for preservation. And as one of the conservation areas, Jalan Panggung was found as promising for revitalisation. On the other hand, the Art District proposal in Vision Plan 2025 was found to be difficult to implement. Therefore the integrated commercial and public space redevelopment concept was proposed replacing that. The concept was to create a vibrant place for everyone to enjoy the public spaces creatively in the pedestrian shopping street setting. Careful conservation and public place provision would be executed. Lastly, public green spaces would be proposed.
The arts proposed in Jalan Panggung would consist of Islamic Art and Chinese Art. And finally, The Jalan Panggung Art Festival would enhance the cultural acculturation and improve the tourism of the area. Hopefully, this would create Sustainable Design in the Conservation Areas of the Jalan Panggung.
We would like to thank:
* Petra Christian University;
o Ir. Handoko Sugiharto, M.T. Dean of Civil Engineering and Planning Faculty;
o Agus Dwi Hariyanto, M.Sc., ST., Head of Architecture Department;
o Ir. Joyce M. Laurens, M.Arch., Lecturer of Architecture Department;
o Ir. Handinoto MT., Lecturer of Architecture Department;
o Ir. Benny Poerbantanoe. MSP., Lecturer of Architecture Department;
* JakArt Foundation
* Surabaya Heritage Community
* DeMaya (Young Designer of Surabaya)
* Mohammad Hilman Taofani (the writer of http://dolansuroboyo.wordpress.com)
Handinoto, (1996), Development of Urban and Dutch Colonial Architecture in Surabaya from 1870-1940 [Perkembangan Kota dan Arsitektur Kolonial Belanda di Surabaya 1870-1940], Andi, Yogyakarta.
Kompas, 06th of Januari 2003, Kembang Jepun, Your History Now [Kembang Jepun, Riwayatmu Kini]
Kompas, 20th February 2003, Surabaya Had Lost Its Identity [Surabaya Telah Kehilangan Jari Diri sebagai Kota]
Kompas, 23rd June of 2003, Four Historical Building in Jakarta Heritage Areas Were Renovated [Empat Bangunan Tua di Kawasan Kota Direnovasi]
Notes of SAWOONG, Surabaya Style [Catatan SAWOONG, Soerabaia Poenja Gaia], http://www.sawoong.com
Periplus, (2005), Surabaya Street Atlas
Poerbantanoe, B., 2001, Community Participation in Conserving and Documenting the Architectural Heritage of Surabaya 1796 – 1940 (Partisipasi Masyarakat di dalam Pelesterian Dan Pendokumentasian Warisan (Arsitektur) Kota Surabaya Tahun 1706 – 1940), Journal Dimensi Architecture Department (Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur) Vol. 29, No. 1, Juli 2001: 43 – 51
Surabaya Municipality, (2005), Surabaya Vision Plan 2005 – 2025, Workshop Report Executive Summary.
Surabaya Municipality, (2010), The Surabaya Spatial Plan Regulation of 2010-2030, http://jdih.surabaya.go.id/pdfdoc/raperda_49.pdf.
Widodo, D., I., (2002), Surabaya in the Old Time [Soerabaia Tempo Doeloe] published by Tourism Department of Surabaya Municipality [Dinas Pariwisata Kota Surabaya]
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